PLACER COUNTY AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT
RULE 216 - ORGANIC SOLVENT CLEANING AND DEGREASING OPERATIONS
(Adopted 06-19-79; Revised 04-21-81, 09-25-90, 11-03-94, 06-08-95)
101 PURPOSE: To limit the emission of volatile organic compounds from degreasers.
102.1 Solvents Containing Less Than 2% VOC: Solvent cleaning operations using solvent (including emulsions)
containing no more than 2 percent of volatile organic compounds (wt) as determined by EPA Method 24 shall not be
subject to the requirements of this rule.
102.2 Cold Cleaners: The provisions of Section 302, of this rule do not apply to non-vapor degreasers which
have an air-solvent interface area less than or equal to 1.0 ft2, except for requirements that cleaners
shall be covered when work is not being processed, or to remote reservoir degreasers using a non-volatile solvent
spray which is drained into the remote reservoir concurrently with the degreasing operation.
201 CONVEYORIZED DEGREASER: Any continually loaded, conveyorized degreaser, using solvent that
is maintained either above or below the initial boiling point temperature of the solvent.
202 DEGREASER: A container that contains solvent or into which solvent is sprayed and concurrently
drained, used to remove oil, grease, soil, coating, dirt or other undesirable matter from workloads.
203 EXEMPT COMPOUNDS: The following compounds are exempt from the definition of VOC in Section
203.2 Carbon dioxide
203.3 Carbon monoxide
203.4 Carbonic acid
203.5 Metallic carbides or carbonates
203.6 Ammonium carbonate
203.8 Methylene chloride
203.9 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
203.10 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
203.11 Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)
203.12 Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)
203.13 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)
203.14 1-chloro-1,1-difluoro-2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethane (CFC-114)
203.15 Chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115)
203.16 Pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
203.17 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
203.18 Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
203.19 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b)
203.20 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b)
203.21 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
203.22 Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)
203.23 Trifluoromethane (HFC-23)
203.24 Difluoroethane (HFC-152a)
203.25 The following four classes of perfluorocarbon compounds:
- Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes.
- Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations.
- Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations.
- Sulfur-containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine.
Perfluorocarbon compounds will be assumed to be absent from a product or process unless a manufacturer or facility
operator identifies the specific individual compounds (from the broad classes of perfluorocarbon compounds) and
the amounts present in the product or process and provides a validated test method which can be used to quantify
the specific compounds.
204 FREEBOARD HEIGHT:
204.1 For non-vapor degreasers, freeboard height means the distance from the top of the solvent, or the solvent
drain of a remote reservoir cold cleaner, to the top of the tank.
204.2 For vapor degreasers, freeboard height means the distance from the solvent vapor-air interface to the top
of the degreaser.
204.3 For conveyorized degreasers, freeboard height means the vertical distance from the top of the solvent (non-vapor
solvent) or the top of the vapor-air interface (vapor degreaser), to the bottom of the lowest opening where solvent
vapors can escape.
205 FREEBOARD RATIO: The freeboard height divided by the smaller of the inside length or the inside
width of the degreaser's evaporative surface area.
206 LEAK: Three or more drops of liquid solvent per minute.
207 LIP EXHAUST: A system which collects solvent vapors escaping from the top of a degreaser and
directs them away from operating personnel.
208 LOW VOLATILITY SOLVENT: Any solvent with an initial boiling point which is greater than 248oF
(120oC) and with a temperature as used, at least 100oC (180oF) below the initial
boiling point as determined pursuant to Section 502.1.
209 MAKEUP SOLVENT: The solvent added to the degreaser to replace solvent lost through evaporation
or other means.
210 NON-VAPOR DEGREASER: Any degreaser using solvent which, if heated, is maintained below the
initial boiling point temperature of the solvent.
211 OPEN-TOP VAPOR DEGREASER: Any batch-loaded degreaser using solvent which is maintained above
the initial boiling point temperature of the solvent. Degreasing occurs through the condensation of the resultant
solvent vapor onto the surface of the workload.
212 OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
213 REFRIGERATED FREEBOARD CHILLER: A secondary cooling coil mounted above the primary condenser which
provides a chilled air blanket above the solvent vapor-air interface to cause the condensation of additional solvent
vapor, thereby increasing vapor control efficiency.
214 REMOTE RESERVOIR DEGREASER: A non-vapor degreaser with a tank which is completely enclosed except
for a solvent return opening no larger than 15.50 square inches (100 square centimeters) which allows used solvent
to drain into it from a separate solvent sink or work area and which is not accessible for soaking workloads.
215 SOLVENT: VOC-containing compounds which are used as diluents, thinners, dissolvers, viscosity
reducers, or cleaning agents.
216 STATIONARY SOURCE (SOURCE OR FACILITY): Any building, structure, facility, or emissions unit
which emits or may emit any affected pollutant directly or as fugitive emissions.
216.1 Building, structure, facility, or emissions unit includes all pollutant emitting activities which:
216.2 Pollutant emitting activities shall be considered as part of the same industrial grouping if:
- belong to the same industrial grouping, and;
- are located on one property or on two or more contiguous properties, and;
- are under the same or common ownership, operation, or control or which are owned or operated by entities which
are under common control.
- they belong to the same two-digit standard industrial classification code under the system described in the
1987 Standard industrial Classification Manual, or;
- they are part of a common production process. (Common production process includes industrial processes, manufacturing
processes and any connected processes involving a common material.)
217 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC): Compounds containing at least one atom of carbon, except
for the compounds listed in Section 203.
218 VOLATILE SOLVENT: Any solvent which is not defined as a low volatility solvent pursuant to
219 WIPE CLEANING: That method of cleaning which utilizes a material such as a rag wetted with a solvent,
coupled with a physical rubbing process to remove contaminants from surfaces.
220 WORKLOAD: The objects put in a degreaser for the purpose of removing oil, grease, soil, coating,
dirt or other undesirable matter from the surface of the objects.
301 GENERAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: Any person who uses a degreaser shall utilize the following
301.1 An apparatus or cover which prevents the solvent from evaporating when not processing work in the degreaser.
301.2 A facility for draining cleaned parts such that the drained solvent is returned to the container.
- For non-vapor degreasers using volatile solvent, or solvent that is agitated, the cover should be a sliding,
rolling or guillotine (bi-parting) type which can be opened and closed easily with one hand.
- For open-top vapor degreasers, the cover should be a sliding, rolling or guillotine (bi-parting) type which
can be opened and closed easily without disturbing the vapor zone.
- For conveyorized degreasers, a cover shall be provided for closing off the entrance and exit during shutdown
301.3 A permanent, conspicuous label which summarizes operating requirements contained in Sections 303, through
306, of this rule.
302 NON-VAPOR DEGREASERS; EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: A person shall operate non-vapor degreasers,
including remote reservoirs (except as noted in Section 102.2), using one of the following control devices:
302.1 Non-vapor degreasers shall operate with a freeboard ratio equal to or greater than 0.75 if using solvents
A water cover may be used as an acceptable alternative, if the solvent is insoluble in water and has a specific
gravity greater than 1.
- Agitated, or
- Heated above 122oF (50oC), or
302.2 Non-vapor degreasers using only low volatility solvents which are not agitated shall operate with a freeboard
height of at least 6 inches.
302.3 A permanent conspicuous mark shall identify the location of the maximum allowable solvent level conforming
to the applicable freeboard requirements.
303 VAPOR DEGREASERS; EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS: A person shall operate vapor degreasers using all
of the following control devices:
303.1 A freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 0.75.
303.2 For cleaners with an evaporative surface area greater than or equal to 1 square meter, shall be equipped
with a refrigerated freeboard chiller for which the chilled air blanket temperature (oF) at the coldest
point on the vertical axis in the center of the air-vapor interface shall be no greater than 30% of the initial
boiling point (oF) of the fresh solvent used or no greater than 40oF. If the chiller operates
below the freezing temperature of water, it shall be equipped with an automatic defrost.
303.3 A primary condenser.
304 VAPOR DEGREASERS; SAFETY SWITCHES: If a vapor degreaser is used, then the following equipment
shall be utilized:
304.1 A device which shuts off the sump heater if the condenser coolant stops circulating or becomes warmer than
304.2 For degreasers of the spray type, a device which prevents spray pump operation unless the solvent vapor level
is at the designed operating level.
304.3 A device (of the manual reset type) which shuts off the sump heater if the solvent vapor level rises above
the designed operating level.
305 CONVEYORIZED DEGREASERS: In addition to the requirements of Sections 301.2, and 301.3, a person
shall not operate a conveyorized degreaser unless it is equipped with the following control devices:
305.1 Either a drying tunnel or other means such as a rotating basket, sufficient to prevent cleaned parts from
carrying out solvent liquid or vapor.
305.2 Minimized opening: entrances and exits should silhouette workloads so that the average clearance between
parts and the edge of the degreaser opening is either less than 4 inches (10 cm) or less than 10 percent of the
width of the opening.
305.3 A primary condenser.
305.4 A vapor level control thermostat.
305.5 A condenser flow switch.
305.6 A spray safety switch.
305.7 A freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 0.75 which is physically verifiable, or a refrigerated freeboard
chiller for which the chilled air blanket temperature (oF) at the coldest point on the vertical axis
in the center of the air-vapor interface shall be no greater than 30 percent of the initial boiling point (oF)
of the solvent used or no greater than 40o F. If the chiller operates below the freezing temperature
of water, it shall be equipped with an automatic defrost.
306 GENERAL OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: Any person who uses a degreaser must conform to the following
306.1 Operate and maintain the degreaser and emission control equipment in proper working order.
306.2 Do not allow any solvent to leak from any portion of the degreaser.
306.3 All solvent, including waste solvent and waste solvent residues, shall be stored in closed containers at
all times. The containers shall have a label indicating the name of the solvent/material they contain.
306.4 If distillation recovery of waste solvent is performed, solvent residues shall not contain more than 10 percent
solvent by volume after distillation.
306.5 Waste solvent and waste solvent residues, shall be disposed of by one of the following methods:
306.6 Do not remove or open any device designed to cover the solvent unless processing work in the degreaser or
performing maintenance on the degreaser.
- A commercial waste solvent reclamation service licensed by the State of California.
- At a facility that is federally or state licensed to treat, store, or dispose of such waste.
- Recycling in conformance with Section 25143.2 of the California Health and Safety Code.
306.7 Drain cleaned parts after cleaning until dripping ceases (non-vapor degreaser only).
306.8 If using a solvent flow, use only a continuous, fluid stream (not a fine, atomized, or shower type spray)
at a pressure which does not cause liquid solvent to splash outside of the degreaser.
306.9 Perform solvent agitation, where necessary, by means other than air agitation.
306.10 Do not degrease porous or absorbent materials such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope.
306.11 For vapor degreasers:
306.12 A person shall minimize solvent carry-out by the following measures, as applicable:
- Workloads shall not occupy more than half of the degreaser's evaporative surface area.
- Solvent spray shall be kept at least 4 inches below the air-vapor interface.
- When starting the degreaser, the cooling system shall be turned on before, or simultaneously with, the sump
- When shutting down the degreaser, the sump heater shall be turned off before, or simultaneously with, the cooling
- The degreaser shall be covered whenever the cooling system is off.
306.13 A cleaner shall not be located where drafts are directed across the cleaner.
- Rack workload to facilitate drainage;
- Move workload in and out of the degreaser at less than 3.3 m/min (11 ft/min);
- Degrease the workload in the vapor zone until condensation ceases;
- Allow workload to dry within the degreaser until visually dry;
- For manual operation, tip out any pools of solvent remaining on the workload before removing it from the degreaser.
306.14 For those cleaners equipped with water separators, no solvent shall be visually detectable in the water
exiting the water separator.
306.15 Wipe cleaning materials containing solvent shall be kept in closed containers at all times, except during
307 LIP EXHAUST: Effective November 3, 1995, a lip exhaust system shall not be added to any degreaser,
unless it is vented to an emission control system, pursuant to Section 308. The lip exhaust shall be turned off
when the degreaser is covered.
308 ALTERNATE EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: Any person or stationary source subject to this rule
may use an emissions control system as an alternative to Sections 302, or 303.1 and 303.2, provided that the system
has an overall control efficiency (the collection efficiency multiplied by the control efficiency) of at least
85 percent on a mass basis, as determined pursuant to Sections 502.2, and 502.3. The emission collection system
shall have a ventilation rate not greater than 20 cubic meters per minute per square meter over the total area
of the degreaser's evaporative surface area, unless the rate must be changed to meet Federal and State OSHA requirements.
The system must be approved in writing by the Air Pollution Control Officer.
400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
401 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE: Any person or stationary source subject to this rule, including previously
exempt sources, shall be in compliance with this rule by November 3, 1995.
402 CALCULATION FOR DETERMINATION OF VOC CONTENT PER VOLUME OF SOLVENT: The volume of solvent
is defined as the volume of the original solvent, plus any VOC-containing material added to the original solvent.
The weight of VOC per volume of solvent shall be calculated by the following equation:
(Wv - Ww - Wec) / (Vs)
Wv = weight of all volatile compounds.
Ww = weight of water.
Wec = weight of compounds listed as exempt
in Section 203 from the definition of VOC.
Vs = volume of solvent
403 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN: Any person using an approved emission control device pursuant
to Section 308, as a means of complying with this rule, as provided in Sections 303, or 303.1 and 303.2, must submit,
with the application for Authority to Construct, pursuant to Rule 501, GENERAL PERMIT REQUIREMENTS, an Operation
and Maintenance Plan for the emission control device to the Air Pollution Control Officer for approval. Plans for
emission control devices installed as of November 3, 1994, if not previously submitted, must be submitted by August
3, 1995, and receive approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer. The Plan shall specify operation and maintenance
procedures which will demonstrate continuous operation of the emission control device during periods of emissions-producing
operations. The Plan shall also specify which records must be kept to document these operation and maintenance
procedures. These records shall comply with the requirements of Sections 501.2, and 501.3. The Plan shall be implemented
upon approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer.
500 MONITORING AND RECORDS
501 USAGE RECORDS: In addition to any existing permit conditions issued pursuant to Rule 501,
effective November 3, 1995, any person subject to this rule shall comply with the following requirements:
501.1 USAGE AMOUNTS:
The person shall record on a quarterly basis the type and total volume for the stationary source of makeup solvent
used for all cleaners subject to this rule. Records shall be kept for each time waste solvent or waste residue
is removed from the facility for disposal.
501.2 CONTROL EQUIPMENT:
Any person using an emission control system pursuant to Section 308, as a means of complying with this rule shall
maintain such records as required by the Operation and Maintenance Plan in Section 403, on a daily basis.
501.3 DURATION OF RECORDS:
Such records shall be maintained on-site for two years, 5 years for sources subject to Rule 507, FEDERAL OPERATING
PERMIT PROGRAM, and made available for review by the Air Pollution Control Officer upon request.
502 TEST METHODS
502.1 DETERMINATION OF BOILING POINT:
The initial boiling point of solvents shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 1078-86.
502.2 DETERMINATION OF CONTROL EFFICIENCY:
The exhaust vapor concentration from a control device shall be determined by EPA Test Methods 25 and 25A (40 CFR
60, Appendix A).
502.3 DETERMINATION OF COLLECTION EFFICIENCY:
Collection efficiency of the collection system shall be determined in accordance with EPA protocols referenced
in 40 CFR 52.741(a)(4)(iii).
502.4 DETERMINATION OF VOLUMETRIC FLOWRATE:
Volumetric flowrate shall be determined in accordance with EPA Methods 2, 2A, 2C, and 2D (40 CFR 60, Appendix A).
502.5 DETERMINATION OF VOC CONTENT:
OC content of solvents shall be determined in accordance with EPA Method 24 and Sections 402, and 502.6, of this
502.6 DETERMINATION OF COMPOUNDS EXEMPT FROM VOC DEFINITION:
Compounds exempted from the VOC definition, as listed in Section 203 of this rule, shall be determined in accordance
with ASTM D 4457-85 or California Air Resources Board Method 432. If any of the perfluorocarbons are being claimed
as exempt compounds, the person making the claim must state in advance which compounds are present, and the EPA-approved
test method used to make the determination of these compounds.