SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGMENT DISTRICT
RULE 1164 - SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING
(Adopted July 8, 1988)(Amended May 5, 1989)(Amended March 2, 1990) (Amended December 7, 1990)(Amended January 13, 1995)
This rule is applicable to all direct, indirect, and support stations associated with the manufacture or production of semiconductor devices. Semiconductor device manufacturing includes all processing from crystal growth through circuit separation and encapsulation, including wafer production, oxidation, photoresist operation, etching, doping, and epitaxial growth operation.
For the purpose of this rule, the following definitions apply:
(A) Group I (General)
cyclic branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes
cyclic branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations
cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations
sulfur-containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine
(B) Group II
1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform)
The use of Group II compounds and/or carbon tetrachloride may be restricted in the future because they are toxic, potentially toxic, upper atmospheric ozone depleters, or cause other environmental impacts. By January 1, 1996, production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform), and carbon tetrachloride will be phased out in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Part 82 (December 10, 1993).
Grams of VOC per Liter of Ws - Ww - Wes Coating Less Water and Less = --------------- Exempt Compounds Vm - Vw - Ves Where: Ws = weight of volatile compounds in grams Ww = weight of water in grams Wes = weight of exempt compounds in grams Vm = volume of material in liters Vw = volume of water in liters Ves = volume of exempt compounds in liters
Ws - Ww - Wes Grams of VOC per Liter of Material = ------------- Vm Where: Ws = weight of volatile compounds in grams Ww = weight of water in grams Wes = weight of exempt compounds in grams Vm = volume of material in liters
(A) NEGATIVE PHOTORESIST OPERATION is a process where the maskant hardens when exposed to light and the unhardened maskant is stripped, exposing the wafer surface for etching.
(B) POSITIVE PHOTORESIST OPERATION is a process where the maskant softens when exposed to light and the softened maskant is stripped, exposing the wafer surface for etching.
VOC Composite Partial Pressure is calculated as follows:
Where: Wi = Weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams Ww = Weight of water, in grams We = Weight of exempt compound, in grams MWi = Molecular weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams per gram-mole MWw = Molecular weight of water, in grams per gram-mole MWe = Molecular weight of exempt compound, in grams per gram-mole PPc = VOC composite partial pressure at 20oC, in mm Hg VPi = Vapor pressure of the "i"th VOC compound at 20oC, in mm Hg
A person shall not operate a solvent cleaning station at a semiconductor manufacturing facility unless the following requirements are satisfied.
(A) All heated or unheated reservoirs, sinks, tanks and containers which transfer, store, or hold VOC-containing material shall be provided with a full cover or an approved emission control system. These covers must remain closed except while production, sampling, maintenance, or loading or unloading procedures require operator access.
(B) All heated or unheated reservoirs and sinks holding VOC-containing fluids with a VOC composite partial pressure of 33 mm Hg or less at 20oC (68oF), shall have a freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 1.0, or be equipped with an approved emission control system.
(C) Solvent flow of VOC-containing materials shall be applied in a continuous unbroken stream and in a manner which shall prevent liquid loss resulting from splashing.
(D) Liquid solvent leaks of 3 drops per minute or more shall be repaired within 24 hours of detection or the equipment shall be shut down until replaced or repaired.
(E) All equipment at a solvent cleaning station shall be operated and maintained in proper working order.
A person shall not allow photoresist operations at a semiconductor manufacturing facility unless the VOC-containing vapors are vented to an approved emission control system.
A person shall not use VOC-containing materials for the purpose of cleaning equipment at a semiconductor manufacturing facility unless the following requirements are satisfied.
(A) The VOC content of the fluid shall not exceed 200 grams per liter (1.7 pounds per gallon) of material; or the VOC composite partial pressure shall not exceed 33 mm Hg (0.64 psia) at a temperature of 20oC (68oF); or the components being cleaned are totally enclosed during the washing, rinsing, and draining processes; or the cleanup solvents are flushed or drained in a manner that does not allow evaporation into the atmosphere; and
(B) only nonabsorbent, closed containers shall be used for the storage, transfer, or disposal of all VOC-containing accessories which include, but are not limited to, cloth, paper, and other materials clearly used for cleanup with solvents.
An owner/operator may achieve compliance with subparagraph (c)(1) and/or (c)(2) by means of an Alternative Emission Control Plan pursuant to Rule 108.
Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (g), records shall be maintained pursuant to Rule 109.
(d) Prohibition of Specifications
A person shall not specify the use of any VOC-containing material for any process or operation within the SCAQMD, subject to the provisions of this rule, that does not meet the requirements of this rule. This prohibition shall apply to all written or oral contracts.
(e) Test Methods
The VOC content of materials subject to the provisions of this rule shall be determined by the following the methods:
(A) United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Reference Method 24 (Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Part 60, Appendix A). The exempt compound content shall be determined by SCAQMD Method 303 (Determination of Exempt Compounds) contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual; or,
(B) SCAQMD Method 304 [Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Various Materials] contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual.
(C) Exempt Perfluorocarbon Compounds
The following classes of compounds:
cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes;
cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations;
cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations; and
sulfur-containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine,
will be analyzed as exempt compounds for compliance with paragraph (c), only when manufacturers specify which individual compounds are used in the coating formulation. In addition, the manufacturers must identify the USEPA, the California Air Resources Board, and the SCAQMD approved test methods used to quantify the amount of each exempt compound.
The identity and quantity of components in solvents shall be determined by SCAQMD Method 308 (Quantitation of Compounds by Gas Chromatography) contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual. The VOC composite partial pressure is calculated using equation in paragraph (b)(14).
(A) The efficiency of the collection device of the emission control system as specified in subparagraph (c)(1)(A) and (c)(1)(B) shall be determined by the USEPA method cited in 55 Federal Register 26865 (June 29, 1990), or any other method approved by the USEPA, the California Air Resources Board, and the SCAQMD.
(B) The efficiency of the control device of the emission control system as specified in subparagraph (c)(1)(A) and (c)(1)(B),and the VOC content in the control device exhaust gases, measured and calculated as carbon, shall be determined by USEPA Test Methods 25, 25A, or SCAQMD Method 25.1 (Determination of Total Gaseous Non-Methane Organic Emissions as Carbon) as applicable. USEPA Test Method 18, or ARB Method 422 shall be used to determine emissions of exempt compounds.
When more than one test method or set of test methods are specified for any testing, a violation of any requirement of this rule established by any one of the specified test methods or set of test methods shall constitute a violation of the rule.
(f) Rule 442 Applicability
Any operation or facility which is exempt from all or a portion of this rule shall comply with the provisions of Rule 442.
The provisions of this rule shall not apply to facilities that produce less than five pounds of total VOC emissions over any continuous 24-hour period.