SAN DIEGO COUNTY AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT

RULE 1205 - CONTROL OF DIOXINS EMISSIONS FROM MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATORS
(Adopted 7/20/93; Effective 1/1/94)

(a) APPLICABILITY

This rule shall apply to any medical waste incinerator.

(b) EXEMPTIONS

  1. The provisions of this rule shall not apply to incinerators which are exclusively crematoria of human or animal remains as defined in Subsection (c)(9) of this rule.

  2. The provisions of this rule shall not apply to existing incinerators which incinerate less than 25 tons per year of medical waste, provided that effective January 1, 1994, any person claiming this exemption complies with Subsections (d)(4), (d)(5) and Section (f) of this rule and maintains records in accordance with Subsections (e)(3), (e)(5) and (e)(6). Owners or operators of existing incinerators which incinerate more than 10 but less than 25 tons per year of medical waste shall also conduct an initial source test in accordance with Sections (g) and (h).

(c)_DEFINITIONS

For the purpose of this rule the following definitions shall apply:

  1. _"Dioxins" means dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans chlorinated in the 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions and containing 4, 5, 6, or 7 chlorine atoms. Emissions of dioxins are expressed in terms of 2, 3, 7, 8 -tetrachlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxin equivalents (TCDD equivalents) as determined by the California Department of Health Services. TCDD equivalents are based on the relative potency of the fifteen dioxins or furans as compared to 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD.

  2. _"Existing Incinerator" means a medical waste incinerator which was installed and operating on or before July 20, 1993.

  3. _"Final Combustion Zone" means the incinerator volume downstream of both the primary chamber and the location where a temperature of 1800 ± 200°F, (982 ± 93°C) is first obtained. This volume may include sections of the flue gas duct.

  4. _"Incinerator" means the same as "medical waste incinerator" defined in Subsection (c)(7).

  5. _"Medical Facility" means any veterinary, medical or dental office, clinic or hospital, any veterinary, medical, or dental instructional or research facility or laboratory, skilled nursing facility, clinical laboratory, surgery center, diagnostic laboratory, or other provider of health care.

  6. _"Medical Waste" means waste which is generated at medical facilities as a result of the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals, in research pertaining thereto, or in the production or testing of biologicals. Medical waste includes, but is not limited to, human or animal specimen cultures, parts, tissues, body fluids, or blood, and sharps, vials, syringes, bandages, bags, or swabs.

  7. _"Medical Waste Incinerator" means a furnace or other closed fire chamber that is used to burn medical waste.
  8. _"New Equipment" means a medical waste incinerator installed after July 20, 1993.

  9. _"Remains" means whole human or animal bodies, or parts thereof. Samples of either blood, tissues, organs or body fluids shall not be considered remains if they are enclosed in or adhere to other materials, including but not limited to vials, syringes, bandages, bags, or swabs.

  10. _"Residence Time" means the amount of time a particle in the combustion gas spends within a specified volume.

  11. _"Uncontrolled Emissions" means the dioxins emissions measured from an incinerator at a location downstream of the final combustion chamber and upstream of the air pollution control equipment.

  12. _"Waste" means all discarded putrescible and nonputrescible solid, semisolid, and liquid materials, including but not limited to, garbage, trash, refuse, paper, rubbish, food, ashes, plastics, industrial wastes, demolition and construction wastes, equipment, instruments, utensils, appliances, chemicals, solvents, manure, and human or animal solid, semisolid, or liquid wastes.

(d)_STANDARDS

  1. _No person shall operate a medical waste incinerator unless, at any time:

    (i)_The uncontrolled emissions have been reduced by 99% or more, by weight; or

    (ii)_The emissions of dioxins to the atmosphere have been reduced to 10 nanograms or less per kilogram of waste burned.

  2. _No person shall operate a medical waste incinerator unless it meets the following requirements:

    (i)_The final combustion zone shall be maintained at a minimum temperature of 1800 ± 200°F, (982 ± 93°C).

    (ii)_For the combustion gas, the furnace design shall provide for a residence time in the final combustion zone of at least 1.0 second at a minimum temperature of 1800 ± 200°F, (982 ± 93°C), unless it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of, and approved in writing by, the Air Pollution Control Officer that the emissions standards in Subsection (d)(1) of this rule can be obtained at a shorter residence time.

    Residence time shall be calculated using the following equation:

      Residence time = _\F(V,Qc)_

      where:

      "V" =_the volume of the final combustion zone, expressed in cubic feet and is measured from a location downstream of the primary chamber where the maximum temperature of 1800 ± 200°F, (982 ± 93°C) has been attained to a location further downstream where the temperature has dropped to no less than 1600°F (871°C). The volume shall not include the burner flame, nor sections in the incinerator subjected to impingement by any burner flame.

      "Qc" =_the average combustion gas volumetric flow rate through the incinerator volume, expressed in actual cubic feet per second, and determined as required by Subsection (g)(2).

    (iii)_The furnace design shall provide for adequate mixing and turbulence of the combustion gas.

    (iv)_The waste charged to the incinerator shall not exceed the maximum waste firing capacity of the incinerator, or the capacity level as specified by enforceable conditions of a District Permit to Operate whichever is less.

  3. _No person shall operate a medical waste incinerator unless such incinerator has been equipped with air pollution control equipment that has been approved in writing by, the Air Pollution Control Officer and which:

    (i)_Has been installed in accordance with the Authority to Construct; and

    (ii)_Is operated in a manner that ensures that the flue gas temperature at the outlet of the control equipment does not exceed 300°F (149°C), unless it has been demonstrated to, and approved in writing by the Air Resources Board and the Air Pollution Control Officer that lower emissions can be achieved at a higher outlet temperature; and

    (iii)_Meets the requirements of Subsection (d)(1).

  4. _All post-combustion waste collected from the incinerator, including but not limited to, bottom ash, fly ash and scrubber residuals, shall be handled and stored in a manner that prevents entrainment into the atmosphere.

  5. _All waste streams, including but not limited to, wastewater, sludge and slurry, shall be disposed of in accordance with all local, state and federal regulations, including, but not limited to, the City of San Diego Municipal Code, Chapter VI, Article 4, Sections 64.0100 to 64.0711 and the California Code of Regulations, Title 22, Sections 66723 and 66699.

(e)_MONITORING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS

  1. _The owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall install and maintain continuous monitors which, at a minimum, record the following parameters:

    (i)_The final combustion zone temperature; and

    (ii)_The emission concentration of carbon monoxide, as measured upstream of the air pollution control equipment, calculated as parts per million (volume) on a dry basis; and

    (iii)_The opacity of emissions to the atmosphere, or other indicator of particulate matter as approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer.

  2. _The owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall calibrate all monitoring equipment on a daily basis and shall maintain calibration and maintenance records.
  3. _The owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall maintain daily records of the following process information, including but not limited to:

    (i)_The hourly weight charging rates to the incinerator, using calibrated equipment which has been approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer to determine and record the weight of waste charged; and

    (ii)_All maintenance and repair schedules and activities of the incinerator and control equipment including any malfunction or failure.

  4. _The owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall install and maintain continuous monitors which record the following operating data for air pollution control equipment, as applicable, including but not limited to:

    (i)_Flue gas inlet and outlet temperatures;

    (ii)_Liquid flow rate, liquid supply pressure, and pH; and

    (iii)_Differential pressure drop of the flue gas across the control equipment.

  5. _Any violation, malfunction, upset condition, or breakdown of the incinerator, the air pollution control equipment, or the continuous monitoring equipment shall be reported to the District immediately upon detection.

  6. _The owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall maintain all records required by this section for a period not less than two years. These records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the District upon request.

(f)_TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

  1. _No person shall operate or charge a medical waste incinerator unless such person obtains either a certificate of training in medical waste incineration issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers within nine months of the commencement of the training program, or equivalent training as determined by the Air Pollution Control Officer.

  2. _The original training certificates shall be maintained at the facility and made available to the District upon request.

(g)_TEST METHODS

  1. _Measurements of dioxins emissions subject to the requirements of Subsection (b)(2) or Subsections (d)(1)(i) or (d)(1)(ii) of this rule shall be conducted in accordance with California Air Resources Board Test Method 428.

  2. _Measurements of the combustion gas volumetric flow rate subject to Subsection (d)(2)(ii) of this rule shall be conducted in accordance with California Air Resources Board Test Method 2.

    The combustion gas volumetric flow rate shall be corrected to the maximum combustion chamber temperature (Tc) and the chamber pressure (Pc).

    Alternative methods for determining the combustion gas volumetric flow rate may be used provided the alternative method has been submitted to, and approved in writing by, the Air Pollution Control Officer prior to testing.

  3. _A source test protocol shall be submitted to, and approved in writing by, the Air Pollution Control Officer prior to testing.

(h)_SOURCE TEST REQUIREMENTS

  1. _For the purpose of maintaining exemption from this rule in accordance with Subsection (b)(2), the owner or operator of an existing incinerator shall conduct an initial source test no later than July 1, 1994.

  2. _For the purposes of determining compliance with Subsections (d)(1) or (d)(2)(ii) of this rule, the owner or operator of a medical waste incinerator shall conduct a minimum of two annual source tests in accordance with a source test protocol approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer. Following the initial compliance tests, annual source tests shall be conducted until at least two consecutive annual tests demonstrate compliance. Thereafter, the frequency of future source tests shall be at the discretion of the Air Pollution Control Officer.

  3. _For purposes of determining compliance with Subsection (d)(1)(i) of this rule, source testing shall be conducted simultaneously at the emissions outlet to the atmosphere and at a location in the flue prior to the control equipment but downstream of the final combustion chamber.

  4. _For purposes of determining compliance with Subsection (d)(1)(ii) of this rule, source testing shall be conducted at the emissions outlet to the atmosphere.

  5. _Source testing shall be conducted at the maximum permitted capacity level (± 10%) as specified by enforceable conditions of a Permit to Operate.

  6. _The waste charged during the source test shall be representative of the waste routinely incinerated at the facility. The feed rate and composition of the waste charged during the source test shall be provided with the source test results, including estimated percent moisture content, and estimated infectious, pathological, hazardous, or radioactive waste content.

  7. _A copy of all source test results shall be provided concurrently to the District and to the California Air Resources Board within 45 days after the source test.

(i)_COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE

  1. _No later than April 1, 1994, the owner or operator of an existing medical waste incinerator shall submit to the Air Pollution Control Officer an application for an Authority to Construct the air pollution control and monitoring equipment and any incinerator modifications necessary to meet the requirements of Section (d) of this rule.

  2. _No later than April 1, 1995, the owner or operator of an existing medical waste incinerator shall be in compliance with all provisions of this rule.

  3. _No later than April 1, 1994 the owner or operator of an existing medical waste incinerator who intends to permanently cease operation of the incinerator shall notify the Air Pollution Control Officer of the shutdown date. The shutdown date shall be no later than June 30, 1994.

  4. _Any person installing new equipment shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section (d) upon initial installation and startup.