State Building
Auditorium, Room 1138
107 South Broadway
Los Angeles, CA

April 24, 1986
10:00 a.m.



86-5-1 Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to 001
Regulations Regarding the Primary and Optional
Oxides of Nitrogen Emission Standards and Test
Procedures Applicable to Passenger Cars, Light-
Duty Trucks, and Medium-Duty Vehicles.

86-5-2 Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to 118
Regulations Regarding Certification of Heavy-Duty
Gasoline-Powered Engines and Vehicles.

86-5-3 Public Hearing to Consider Amendment to 194
Regulations Regarding Certification of Heavy-Duty
Diesel-Powered Engines and Vehicles.


Other Business

a. Closed Session
1. Personnel (as authorized by State Agency Open Meeting
Act, Govt. Code Sec. 11126(a).).
2. Litigation (Pursuant to the attorney-client privilege,
Evidence Code Sec. 950-962, and Govt. Code Sec.
b. Research Proposals
c. Delegations to Executive Officer

ITEM NO.: 86-5-1

Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to Regulations Regarding
the Primary and Optional Oxides of Nitrogen Emission Standards
and Test Procedures Applicable to Passenger Cars, Light-Duty
Trucks, and Medium-Duty Vehicles.


Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from motor vehicles contribute
to increased concentrations of three out of four of the
pollutants for which California exceeds the state and federal
ambient air quality problems. To help reduce these air pollution
problems, the staff recommends that the Board restrict use of the
optional 0.7 g/mi NOx emission standard for passenger cards and
phase out the 1.0 g/m NOx emission standard for light-duty trucks
(0-3999 lbs. EIW) and medium-duty vehicles (0-3999 lbs. EIW)
beginning in 1989. Small volume manufacturers would not be
affected until 1991. Staff recommends that manufacturers be
allowed to come into compliance with the 0.4 NOx standard over a
two year period in order to facilitate an orderly phase-in of a
fleet which complies with the standard. Thus, all affected
vehicles would be required to meet the primary 0.4 g/mi NOx
emission standard for 50,000 miles by 1990 (1992 vehicles
produced by small volume manufacturers).

The staff also recommends that up to 5 percent of a
manufacturer's California passenger car and 5 percent of its
light-duty truck and medium-duty vehicle sales, as well as all
passenger cars over 5000 pounds, be permitted to certify at the
o.7 g/mi NOx standard indefinitely.

Finally, the staff recommends that one of the two optional
100,000 mile emission standards presently available to
manufacturers of passenger cars, light-duty trucks and
medium-duty vehicles be eliminated and that the other optional
standard be made applicable only to diesel-powered vehicles. No
gasoline vehicles are currently certified to either of these
standards and the maintenance of two options for diesel-powered
vehicles is unnecessary.


Based on a careful assessment of technological feasibility, fuel
economy, potential model unavailability, cost, and air quality
benefits associated with a 0.4 g/mi NOx standard, the staff has
concluded that significantly wider implementation of the primary
standard would have a beneficial impact on California's air

The technological feasibility of the 0.4 g/mi NOx standard is
established based on an analysis of certification data, in-use
vehicle data, and expected improvements in emission control
technology which have been predicted both by vehicle
manufacturers and catalyst suppliers.

During the past five years fleet average certification NOx
emissions have decreased from 0.54 g/mi in 1981 to 0.42 g/mi in
1985. In 1985, fifty-three percent of the passenger cards and
light-duty trucks which would be subject to 0.4 g/mi NOx had
certified emissions at or below the proposed standard. Five
engine families have demonstrated NOx emissions in customer
service below 0.4 g/mi at mileages ranging up to 50,000 miles.
There is significant potential for lower NOx emissions in the
next few years due to further improvements in emission control
technology. Vehicle manufacturers are already using more precise
fuel injection systems and could increase the amount of catalyst
metals (principally rhodium) in the catalytic convertor to reduce
NOx emissions. Furthermore, catalyst suppliers have indicated
that more durable catalyst designs are or soon will be available
which feature more resistance to thermal degradation and
poisoning. Thus, systems for controlling NOx emissions are being
made more durable resulting in lower in-use NOx emissions. For
these reasons, the staff has concluded that the 0.4 g/mi NOx
standard is technologically feasible for gasoline-powered
passenger cars, light-duty trucks (0-3999 lbs) and medium-duty
vehicles (0-3999 lbs).

The engineering technology utilized to meet 0.4 g/mi NOx will not
impact fuel consumption. This is due to the utilization of
refined fuel management systems and improved catalytic treatment
of the exhaust gas which will be the primary means of complying
with 0.4 g/mi NOx.

In order to address potential model unavailability, the staff's
recommendation contains a provision allowing manufacturers to
continue certifying a limited number of passenger cars,
light-duty trucks (0.3999 lbs) and medium-duty vehicles (0-3999
lbs) to the 0.7 g/mi NOx standard. This provision is designed
for speciality vehicles which may have difficulty complying with
the 0.4 g/mi NOx standard. In addition, staff has proposed to
delay the effective date of the changes for small volume
manufacturers who do not have resources to develop the necessary
technology and which, therefore, must purchase the technology
from other manufacturers.


The staff estimates that in the year 2000, statewide emission
reductions resulting from this proposal would be 147 tons/day
NOx, 528 tons/day carbon monoxide, and 10 tons/day hydrocarbons.
Reductions in NOx will reduce ambient concentrations of
particulate matter and NO2, improve visibility and reduce acid
deposition. Reductions in hydrocarbons will reduce ozone levels,
particularly in urban areas. Finally, NOx reductions will reduce
ozone concentrations in areas of highest existing ozone
concentrations. However, NOx reductions are expected to increase
ozone levels in areas with relatively lower existing
concentrations. Also, as a result of the expected increase in
the use of certain emission control strategies to meet the more
stringent NOx standard, the anticipated rate of reduction of
benzene emissions will decrease slightly resulting in an increase
in projected benzene emissions of 0.4 tons per day in the year
2000. There are no mitigation measures or alternatives which
could substantially reduce these adverse impacts while at the
same time providing the benefits identified above. Staff
believes the public health benefits which will result from the
significant decrease in NOx, HC, CO, PM and the associated
benefits of improved visibility and reduced acid deposition far
outweigh the adverse impacts identified.

The staff estimates that costs associated with this proposal will
average $37 to $52 per vehicle depending on the future price of
rhodium. The cost effectiveness will range from $0.65 to $0.91
per pound of NOx. This cost effectiveness compares very
favorably with other emission control strategies recently
adopted. For example, the malfunction indicator system cost
effectiveness ranged from $0.58 to $0.70 per pound of NOx
reduced. Also, the 0.4 g/mi NOx cost effectiveness compares
favorably with stationary source NOx emission control strategies
adopted in recent years. For example, the cost effectiveness in
1985 dollars of a NOx control measure affecting utility gas
turbines (adopted January 21, 1981) was $2.90 per pound of NOx

ITEM NO.: 86-5-2

Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to Regulations Regarding
Certification of Heavy-Duty Gasoline-Powered Engines and


Amend the California steady-state emission standards and test
procedures for 1987 and later model heavy-duty gasoline-powered
engines and vehicles so that they are generally aligned with the
corresponding federal regulations. The amendments would
incorporate the federal transient test cycle and change the
emission standards for hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO),
and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards as shown in the
following table.

Gross Vehicle (g/bhp-hr)
Model Year Weight Rating HC COA NOx

987C 8,500 pounds 1.1 14.4 10.6
and greater

greater than
14,000 pounds 1.9B 37.1B 10.6

1988-1990 Same as above 6.0

1991 and Same as above 5.0

A Carbon monoxide emissions from engines utilizing exhaust
aftertreatment technology shall also not exceed 0.5 percent
of the exhaust gas flow at curb idle.

B Also applicable to up to five percent per model year of a
manufacturer's heavy-duty gasoline-powered vehicle sales
below 14,000 pounds.

C Manufacturers with existing engines certified to the
California 1986 steady-state emission standards and test
procedures may as an option certify those engines, for the
1987 model year only, in accordance with the 1986 standards
and test procedures.

The amendments would also extend the useful-life period
for emissions compliance, engine durability, and recall
to the federal full-life distance of 110,000 miles, and
make various other minor regulatory changes.


The proposed HC and CO emission standards for light-heavy-duty
gasoline-powered vehicles (up to 14,000 pounds gross vehicle
weight) will force the use of catalyst technology. Gasoline-powered
vehicles greater than 14,000 pounds will be required to
meet non-catalyst HC and CO emission standards which are still
significantly more stringent than current California steady-state
emission standards.

The proposed 1987 through 1990 model NOx standards less stringent
than the existing standard, which is approximately equivalent to
5.1 g/bhp-hr on the transient test cycle. Starting with the 1991
model year, the proposed NOx standard is slightly more stringent
than the existing California standard. The staff considered the
feasibility of retaining the 5.1 g/bhp-hr NOx standard in
combination with more stringent HC and CO standards for the 1987
through 1990 model years. Manufacturers are currently in the
process of certifying their 1987 models, and most design and
development efforts aimed at compliance with the 1988 federal
standards are underway. Thus, inadequate lead time exists for
manufacturers to produce separate models for 1987 and 1988 for
California which meet both the federal HC and CO and current
California NOx standards. If the combination standards were
imposed for the 1989 and 1990 model years, manufacturers would be
faced with designing California-only engines and systems for only
two model years, before tighter 1991 federal NOx standards forced
another modification. Manufacturers could reasonably be expected
to pull many models from the California market for 1989 and 1990
rather than face this expense. The staff does not believe the
benefit of a more stringent California NOx standard for a two-year
period justifies the costs of designing and certifying
separate models for California, and the model unavailability that
would likely result.

Because adoption of the transient standards will occur near the
time when manufacturers are certifying 1987 models, those
manufacturers who had planned to carryover 1986 steady-state
certified engines for 1987 will be allowed a one year carryover
provision for the 1987 model year only.

The staff plans to continue to monitor the manufacturers'
progress toward meeting more stringent NOx standards. When
further advancements are made the staff will evaluate more
stringent NOx standards.


Adoption of the staff proposal would result in statewide emission
reduction of 20 tons per day (tpd) HC and 982 tpd CO in the year
2000. The change in the 1987-1990 NOx standard would increase
NOx emissions 4 tpd statewide in 1991; by the year 2000 the
proposed standards would result in a 6 tpd NOx decrease.

The hardware cost (per vehicle) associated with complying with
the more stringent HC and CO emission requirements will average
$206. This price increase will occur nationwide. A fuel savings
associated with the 1987 standards will more than offset the
hardware cost. A lifetime fuel cost savings of 858 to 1226
dollars should be realized per vehicle. Compliance with the 1991
NOx emission standard is expected to cost the consumer an
additional seven dollars per vehicle. The cost effectiveness of
the staff's proposal (not including fuel savings) is very
favorable compared to other mobile source control strategies.
The cost effectiveness estimates in 1985 dollars are 21 cents per
pound of HC emissions reduced, less than one cent per pound of CO
emissions reduced, and eight cents per pound of NOx emissions