CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD
1055 Van Ness
April 7, 1988
88-5-1 Presentation on San Joaquin Valley Growth and 001
Air Quality Impacts and Consideration of a
Petition for a Valley-wide Environmental Impact
88-5-2 Status Report on the Demonstration Program to 015
Control Ethanol Emissions from Winery Fermentation
a. Closed Session
Personnel (as authorized by State Agency Open Meeting Act,
Govt. Code Sec. 11126(a).)
b. Research Proposals
c. Delegations to Executive Officer
ITEM NO.: 88-5-1
Presentation on San Joaquin Valley Growth and Air Quality Impacts
and Petition for a Valley-wide EIR.
None. This is a status report.
The eight counties in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin are
experiencing economic, population, and industrial growth. Air
population emissions associated with this growth are hindering
efforts to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards,
particularly for ozone, carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate
matter (PM10). The presentation examines the meteorology of the
Valley; existing air quality; existing and future economic,
population and industrial development; mobile and non-mobile
emissions increase; and efforts being made to reduce emissions
and air quality impacts. Following the presentation, a panel of
representatives of local government, industry and the public will
discuss the air quality situation and options for future actions.
The Board will also consider a petition received from local
environmental groups for an EIR which addresses the Valley-wide
and cumulative environmental impacts of all new stationary
sources. The Board is not legally required to prepare an EIR
since there is no "project" within the meaning of CEQA which
requires Board approval.
Meteorology and Air Pollution Potential-The meteorology of the
Valley is conducive to trapping air pollutants in high
concentrations. Transport of pollutants into and out of the
basin is recognized, but more information is needed to determine
the magnitude of transport and how it affects concentrations of
pollution in the Valley.
Current Air Quality-Currently, air pollution in the Valley
violates ambient air quality standards for ozone and PM10, and in
urban areas, for CO. Staff will be presenting air quality and
emission trends for the years 1975 and 1987.
Current Economy and Projected Economic, Population and Industrial
Growth-The San Joaquin Valley population and economy (such as
employment, value of products, and taxable sales) have been
growing and are expected to continue growing at a rate faster
than for the state as a whole. With growing population and
economy, associated emissions are also increasing.
Stationary Source and Motor Vehicle Emissions Growth-Valley-wide
emissions of criteria pollutants, except PM10, have been
declining due to implementation of control measures, particularly
motor vehicle controls. By the end of the century, however,
emissions from both stationary sources and motor vehicles are
expected to be increasing due to growth in the Valley. A fast
growing category of emissions is power generating facilities
fueled by natural gas, biomass, coal, petroleum coke, and
Progress Towards Meeting AAQS-ARB and the Districts have been
making efforts to reduce emissions and improve air quality in the
San Joaquin Valley. These efforts include: adoption of control
measures for motor vehicles and stationary sources, developing
new control measures for both HC and NOx; adoption of measures to
reduce emissions from transportation and area sources; updating
Kern County's federal ozone plan, and supporting and funding the
San Joaquin Valley air quality study.
Conclusions-The Valley is conducive to high concentrations of air
pollutants; current air quality needs improvement; expected
growth in the economy and population under current regulations
will lead to an increase in emissions thus exacerbating the
current problem; and therefore it appears additional near term
measures, as well as the long term measures, are needed.
ITEM NO.: 88-5-2
Update on the Demonstration Program to Control Ethanol Emissions
from Winery Fermentation Tanks.
This is a status report.
At the Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) meeting of March 27,
1987, the Board approved a demonstration program that would
address certain issues regarding the feasibility and cost of
ethanol emission controls for winery fermentation tanks. Under
the provisions of the demonstration program, an ad hoc advisory
committee (the Committee) was created to implement the program.
Demonstration Program-The demonstration program has two separate
phases. Phase I, which began during the 1987 fermentation
season, consists of the following: (1) a pilot program to
evaluate three ethanol emission control technologies (scrubbing,
carbon adsorption, and catalytic incineration); (2) an evaluation
of tank usage at three wineries in the Fresno area (Gallo,
Christian Brothers, and Guild-Cribari); and (3) preparation of
conceptual cost estimates for the three wineries based on the
results of the pilot program and tank usage study. Phase II of
the demonstration program which would involve testing of full
size control equipment at an operating winery, would begin
following the completion of Phase I if the Committee determines
the need for the Phase II study.
Pilot Program-The pilot program, which was conducted at
California State University at Fresno, consisted of evaluations
of two red wine fermentations and two white wine fermentations.
For each test, four 1,400 gallon tanks were used to ferment the
wine and to test the three control units. Each of three tanks
was equipped with exhaust ducting and a control device. A fourth
tank did not have ducting or emission control. The ARB staff
performed emissions testing throughout the pilot plant study.
The Committee reviewed the results of the pilot program and
concluded that the control units operated properly as designed,
and that the quality of the wine was not affected by the presence
of a control device.
Tank Usage Study-The tank usage study consisted of site visits by
ARB staff to the three operating wineries in the Fresno area
during the 1987 fermentation season to monitor tank usage
patterns, and a review of historical fermentation tank usage for
the years 1984 through 1986. The tank usage data from the study
allowed the Committee to evaluate the number of tanks that would
have to be ducted for each of the three wineries. The number of
tanks that need to be ducted play an important role in the
overall costs for emission control.
Future Work-The Committee has decided to continue Phase I of the
demonstration program because of several issues that need to be
addressed. Issues that need further clarification are: (1)
emission factors for wine fermentation; (2) efficiencies of the
exhaust collection devices; and (3) the effects of foam-overs on
the collection and control systems. The Committee will address
these issues through further pilot study using the carbon
adsorption control device. The details of the additional Phase I
investigations will be worked out by the Committee. Upon
completion of the additional Phase I study, the Committee will
present to the Board a report on its findings and conclusions for