State of California
AIR RESOURCES BOARD
Jack Tar Hotel
Geary & Van Ness
San Francisco, CA
August 25, 1977
77-19-1 Status Report on Research Projects. 1
77-19-2 Status Report on Vapor Recovery. 134
77-19-3 Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to Procedures for 263
Certification of Gasoline Vapor Recovery Systems at Service
77-19-4 Public Hearing Regarding Aftermarket Parts. 286
77-19-5 Other Business -
a. Executive Session - Personnel & Litigation
b. Research Proposals 346
ITEM NO.: 77-19-1
Status Report on Contract Research Projects.
The Board has periodically reviewed the ARB research program in
order to gain an overview of studies currently in progress and to
suggest issues that should be addressed in the future. This
staff report provides the Board with a brief review of objectives
of the research effort and the methods by which projects are
developed to meet these objectives; with highlights and summaries
of recently completed studies, work now in progress, and projects
budgeted for the coming year; and with a brief look at areas in
which additional research may be required in the years ahead.
ITEM NO.: 77-19-2
Status Report on the California Program for Gasoline Vapor
Recovery During Gasoline Marketing Operations.
None. This is an informational report.
A program to recover gasoline vapors during gasoline marketing
operations began in California in 1973. The purposes of the
program are to reduce hydrocarbon emissions that are by-products
of the evaporation of gasoline and to recover gasoline that would
otherwise be lost through evaporation. Estimates indicate that a
vapor recovery program in California, when fully implemented,
will prevent the emission of 222 tons of hydrocarbons per day and
save as much as 26 million gallons of gasoline per year.
The program is based on gasoline vapor recovery rules that were
developed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Air
Resources Board, and individual air pollution control districts.
These rules set guidelines for the effectiveness of recovery
systems and say where -- in terms of marketing facilities and
geographic location -- gasoline vapors are to be recovered. As
of today, EPA gasoline vapor recovery rules are required in all
air pollution control districts of the following air basins, and
the South Coast Air Quality Control Region (AQCR).
San Joaquin Valley; and
South Coast AQCR
The Air Resources Board requires gasoline vapor recovery rules in
the following air basins and the South Coast AQCR.
Sacramento Valley (nonrural areas only);
San Joaquin Valley (nonrural areas only); and
South Coast AQCR
In addition, the Bay Area and San Diego Air Pollution Control
Districts had adopted their own gasoline vapor recovery rules
prior to federal and state action. The Air Resources Board staff
is studying the feasibility of extending some vapor recovery
requirements into the Mountain Counties and Lake Tahoe Air Basins
and the rural areas of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valley Air
Two basic systems -- the balance system and the vacuum-assisted
system -- are used to recover gasoline vapors. In the balance
system, liquid coming into the vehicle fuel tank creates a
pressure that forces vapors through a return line back to the
underground storage tank. In the vacuum-assisted system, an
aspirator, pump, or blower draws the vapors through the return
line. Gasoline service stations have been using one or the other
of these systems, but so far bulk plants and most of the
terminals have been using only the balance systems.
As part of the vapor recovery program, certification and test
procedures have been developed to ensure that gasoline vapor
recovery systems meet prescribed standards of efficiency; are
reasonably safe, with respect to fire and industrial hazards; and
are compatible with the vehicles with which the systems are to be
used. The performance standard for vapor recovery systems at
each fuel transfer operation specifies that 90 percent by weight
of the vapors displaced during transfer operations be prevented
from being released into the atmosphere. Four systems for use in
the filling of underground storage tanks have been certified;
tests are now in progress on systems that can be used in fueling
vehicles, and one system (a vacuum assisted system) has been
The recent performance of aspirated assisted and vacuum assisted
systems is leading the staff to consider a more stringent stage
II vapor recovery standard for new system installation, at least
for those areas of California where violations of the ambient air
quality standard for oxidant are severe. The latest system
performance and cost data on systems like the Hasselmann vacuum
assisted system appear to support a tightening of the standard.
Previous concerns that vacuum assisted systems would provide only
minimally higher collection efficiency at substantially higher
costs have been allayed. Based on the latest data from system
manufacturers, the staff believes vacuum assisted stage II
systems are now available which cost only $600 more than typical
balance systems when installed at existing uncontrolled stations.
Problems associated with the vapor recovery program in California
have generally centered around vehicle fueling operations at
service stations. These problems have involved mismatches
between vehicle gas tank fill pipes and vapor recovery nozzles;
difficulty of use by the general public of vapor recovery nozzles
that are heavier and bulkier than other nozzles; and design
characteristics that have allowed blow-back of gasoline; over-fueling,
spillage, or in rare instances, fire. Efforts by the
Air Resources Board staff, the State Fire Marshal, the Division
of Measurement Standards, and the designers of vapor recovery
systems will serve to eliminate all of the serious problems and
hazards associated with gasoline vapor recovery. Several of the
systems now undergoing the certification process are
substantially improved over typical systems currently in use.
A report on this subject was included in the May 26, 1977 Board
agenda, and as such was distributed to people on a standard
mailing list. This report is an updated version of the previous
ITEM NO.: 77-19-3
Public Hearing - Amendments to Procedures for Certification of
Gasoline Vapor Recovery Systems at Service Stations.
Adopt Resolution 77-44, thereby amending Section 94001 of Title
17, "Certification Procedures for Gasoline Vapor Recovery Systems
at Service Stations," as shown in Exhibit II.
This is a public hearing for the consideration of amending the
certification procedures for gasoline vapor recovery systems at
service stations. The staff's experience in implementing the
procedures has let it to conclude that minor modifications should
be adopted. The amendments will make the following changes:
provide the Executive Officer with the discretion to permit
shorter operational tests for components of vapor recovery
systems; clarify maintenance allowable during the 90-day
operational tests; and clarify the procedure for approving
changes to a system after it has been certified.
ITEM NO.: 77-18-3
Public Hearing to Consider Proposed changes to Regulations
Regarding Aftermarket Parts.
Adopt Resolution 77-40.
Vehicle Code Section 27156 prohibits installing, selling,
offering for sale or advertising any replacement part, add-on
part, or modified part which adversely affects the emissions
performance of any emissions-related component of a vehicle
intended for street use in California. ARB Resolution 71-2 and
73-24 have been used for several years as a policy guide for the
enforcement of Section 27156. Recently, however, it has become
obvious that the Board's policies and the Executive Officer's
duties and authority need clarification and formalization.
The staff now proposes additions and amendments to Chapter 3,
Subchapter 4, Title 13, California Administrative Code, which
define the Board's authority. The staff will define which parts
constitute a vehicle's emission control system and will list
non-conforming modifications. Replacement parts will still be
considered in conformity with Section 27156 unless the Executive
Officer has reason to believe otherwise. But, in the future,
manufacturers will be required to keep records, such as test
data, performance specification, and/or other information which
demonstrate that its parts are, in fact, equivalent to factory-installed
parts. This information need not be submitted to the
Board except when requested, for cause, by the Executive Officer.
If a part is found in non-conformity with Section 27156, the
Executive Officer may request records for any or all of that
manufacturer's parts which are sold in California.
Add-on parts and modified parts will be considered in non-compliance with
Section 27156 unless they have been specifically
exempted by the Executive Officer. These parts will be evaluated
in accordance with either the "Criteria for Evaluation of Add-on
Parts and Modified Parts" (Exhibit V) or with specific criteria
such as "Criteria for After-market Ignition System Modifications"
(Exhibit VIII), if any.
An add-on part or modified part cannot be exempted under Section
27156 unless the Executive Officer finds that the part: 1) does
not reduce the effectiveness of any required motor vehicle
pollution control device; or 2) results in emissions from any
such modified or altered vehicle which are at levels which comply
with existing state or federal standards for that model year of
the vehicle being modified or converted. As a practical matter,
most manufacturers are expected to choose to demonstrate
compliance with the first requirement.
To obtain an exemption, each manufacturer will be required to
submit a written application to ARB containing a description of
the device, drawings, installation instructions, a list of
vehicle makes and model-years for which it is requesting an
exemption, a list of companies' brand names, part numbers
associated with the device, and any relevant test data which
support the manufacturer's request for exemption.
The staff believes that the proposed aftermarket parts
regulations will reduce the emissions increases caused by
replacement parts and add-on and modified parts. These
regulations also serve to clarify and broaden the Board's
authority in this area, so that the regulations can be enforced
consistently and can act as a deterrent to the marketing of
devices which increase emissions.