Last reviewed on August 29, 2013

Glossary of Terms Used in Greenhouse Gas Inventories

A

Activity Data
Data on the magnitude of a human activity resulting in emissions or removals taking place during a given period of time. Data on energy use, metal production, land areas, management systems, lime and fertilizer use and waste arisings are examples of activity data. (IPCC)
Aerosols
A collection of airborne solid or liquid particles, with a typical size between 0.01 and 10 micrometer that reside in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Aerosols may influence climate in several ways: directly through scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei or modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds (IPCC2)
Afforestation
Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests. (IPCC2)
Air Pollutant
Any man-made and/or natural substance occurring in the atmosphere that may result in adverse effects to humans, animals, vegetation, and/or materials. (CARB)
Anthropogenic
The term "anthropogenic", in the context of greenhouse gas inventories, refers to greenhouse gas emissions and removals that are a direct result of human activities or are the result of natural processes that have been affected by human activities. (USEPA2)
Atmosphere
The gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth. The dry atmosphere consists almost entirely of nitrogen (78.1% volume mixing ratio) and oxygen (20.9% volume mixing ratio), together with a number of trace gases, such as argon (0.93% volume mixing ratio), helium and radiatively active greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (0.035% volume mixing ratio) and ozone. In addition, the atmosphere contains the greenhouse gas water vapor, whose amounts are highly variable but typically around 1% volume mixing ratio. The atmosphere also contains clouds and aerosols. (IPCC2)

B

Baseline Emissions
A baseline is a measurement, calculation, or time used as a basis for comparison. Baseline emissions are the level of emissions that would occur without policy intervention or without implementation of a project. Baseline estimates are needed to determine the effectiveness of emission reduction programs (also called mitigation strategies).
Base Year
The starting year for the inventory. Targets for reducing GHG emissions are often defined in relation to the base year. Under AB 32, the base year for California's greenhouse gas inventory is 1990.
Biogenic
Produced by the biological processes of living organisms. Note that we use the term "biogenic" to refer only to recently produced (that is non-fossil) material of biological origin. IPCC guidelines recommend that peat be treated as a fossil carbon because it takes a long time to replace harvested peat.
Biogeochemical Cycle
Movements through the Earth system of key chemical constituents essential to life, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. (NASA)
Biomass
Either (1) the total mass of living organisms in a given area or of a given species usually expressed as dry weight; or (2) Organic matter consisting of or recently derived from living organisms (especially regarded as fuel) excluding peat. Includes products, by-products and waste derived from such material. (IPCC1)
Biomass Waste
Organic non-fossil material of biological origin that is a byproduct or a discarded product. "Biomass waste" includes municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural crop byproducts, straw, and other biomass solids, liquids, and gases; but excludes wood and wood-derived fuels (including black liquor), biofuels feedstock, biodiesel, and fuel ethanol. Note: EIA "biomass waste" data also include energy crops grown specifically for energy production, which would not normally constitute waste. (EIA)
Black Carbon
Operationally defined aerosol species based on measurement of light absorption and chemical reactivity and/or thermal stability; consists of soot, charcoal and/or possible light absorbing refractory organic matter (Charlson and Heintzenberg, 1995, p. 401). (IPCC2)

C

Carbon Cycle
All parts (reservoirs) and fluxes of carbon. The cycle is usually thought of as four main reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (usually includes freshwater systems), oceans, and sediments (includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but most of that pool is not involved with rapid exchange with the atmosphere. (NASA)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1. (IPCC2)
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e)
A metric used to compare emissions of various greenhouse gases. It is the mass of carbon dioxide that would produce the same estimated radiative forcing as a given mass of another greenhouse gas. Carbon dioxide equivalents are computed by multiplying the mass of the gas emitted by its global warming potential.
Carbon Equivalent (CE)
A metric measure used to compare the emissions of the different greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential. Carbon equivalents can be calculated from to carbon dioxide equivalents by multiplying the carbon dioxide equivalents by 12/44 (the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon to that of carbon dioxide). The use of carbon equivalent is declining in GHG inventories.
Carbon Intensity
The amount of carbon by weight emitted per unit of energy consumed. A common measure of carbon intensity is weight of carbon per British thermal unit (Btu) of energy. When there is only one fossil fuel under consideration, the carbon intensity and the emissions coefficient are identical. When there are several fuels, carbon intensity is based on their combined emissions coefficients weighted by their energy consumption levels. (EIA)
Carbon Sequestration
This refers to the capture of CO2 from the atmosphere and its long term storage in oceans (oceanic carbon sequestration), in biomass and soils (terrestrial carbon sequestration) or in underground reservoirs (geologic carbon sequestration).
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Greenhouse gases covered under the 1987 Montreal Protocol and used for refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, solvents, or aerosol propellants. Because they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere, CFCs drift into the upper atmosphere where, given suitable conditions, they break down ozone. These gases are being replaced by other compounds, including hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, which are greenhouse gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol. (IPCC3)
Climate
Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather" or more rigorously as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. (IPCC2)
Climate Change
Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. (IPCC2)
Cogeneration
means an industrial structure, installation, plant, building, or self-generating facility that has sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy (usually mechanical and thermal) in a single, integrated system. (CARB)
Combined heat and power (CHP)
is the simultaneous production of both electricity and useful heat for application by the producer or to be sold to other users with the aim of better utilisation of the energy used. Public utilities may utilise part of the heat produced in power plants and sell it for public heating purposes. Industries as auto-producers may sell part of the excess electricity produced to other industries or to electric utilities. (IPCC)
Consistency
Consistency means that an inventory should be internally consistent in all its elements over a period of years. An inventory is consistent if the same methodologies are used for the base and all subsequent years and if consistent data sets are used to estimate emissions or removals from sources or sinks. (IPCC)
Continuous Emission Monitor (CEM)
A type of air emission monitoring system installed to operate continuously inside of a smokestack or other emission source. (CARB)
Criteria Air Pollutant
An air pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure can be determined and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set. Examples include: ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and PM10 and PM2.5. The term "criteria air pollutants" derives from the requirement that the U.S. EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants. The U.S. EPA and CARB periodically review new scientific data and may propose revisions to the standards as a result. (CARB)

D

Deforestation
Those practices or processes that result in the change of forested lands to non-forest uses. This is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect for two reasons: 1) the burning or decomposition of the wood releases carbon dioxide; and 2) trees that once removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis are no longer present and contributing to carbon storage. (UNFCC)
Distillate fuel oil
A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation. (EIA)

E

Emissions
The release of a substance (usually a gas when referring to the subject of climate change) into the atmosphere. (USEPA1)
Emission Factor
A coefficient that quantifies the emissions or removals of a gas per unit activity. Emission factors are often based on a sample of measurement data, averaged to develop a representative rate of emission for a given activity level under a given set of operating conditions. (IPCC)
Emission Inventory
An estimate of the amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere from major mobile, stationary, area-wide, and natural source categories over a specific period of time such as a day or a year. (CARB)
Emission Rate
The weight of a pollutant emitted per unit of time (e.g., tons / year). (CARB)
Estimation
is the assessment of the value of an unmeasurable quantity using available data and knowledge within stated computational formulas or mathematical models.

F

Fluorocarbons
Carbon-fluorine compounds that often contain other elements such as hydrogen, chlorine, or bromine. Common fluorocarbons include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). (UNFCC)
Flux
Either (1) Raw materials, such as limestone, dolomite, lime, and silica sand, which are used to reduce the heat or other energy requirements of thermal processing of minerals (such as the smelting of metals). Fluxes also may serve a dual function as a slagging agent. (2) The rate of flow of any liquid or gas, across a given area; the amount of this crossing a given area in a given time. (e.g., "Flux of CO2 absorbed by forests").(IPCC)
Fossil Fuel
Geologic deposits of hydrocarbons from ancient biological origin, such as coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Fuel Combustion
fuel combustion is the intentional oxidation of materials within an apparatus that is designed to provide heat or mechanical work to a process, or for use away from the apparatus. (IPCC)
Fugitive Emissions
Emissions that are not emitted through an intentional release through stack or vent. This can include leaks from industrial plant and pipelines. (IPCC)

G

Geologic carbon sequestration
It is the process of injecting CO2 from a source, such as coal-fired electric generating power plant, through a well into the deep subsurface. With proper site selection and management, geologic sequestration could play a major role in reducing emissions of CO2. Research efforts to evaluate the technical aspects of CO2 geologic sequestration are underway. (USEPA4)
Global Warming
Global warming is an average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced. In common usage, "global warming" often refers to the warming that can occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities. Also see Climate Change (USEPA1)
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
An index, based upon radiative properties of well-mixed greenhouse gases, measuring the radiative forcing of a unit mass of a given well-mixed greenhouse gas in the present-day atmosphere integrated over a chosen time horizon, relative to that of carbon dioxide. The GWP represents the combined effect of the differing times these gases remain in the atmosphere and their relative effectiveness in absorbing outgoing thermal infrared radiation. The Kyoto Protocol is based on GWPs from pulse emissions over a 100-year time frame. (IPCC2)
Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32)
AB 32 requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to develop regulations and market mechanisms that will ultimately reduce California's greenhouse gas emissions by 25 percent by 2020. Specifically, AB 32, requires CARB to: establish a statewide greenhouse gas emissions cap for 2020, based on 1990 emissions by January 1, 2008; adopt mandatory reporting rules for significant sources of greenhouse gases by January 1, 2009; adopt a scoping plan by January 1, 2009 indicating how emission reductions will be achieved from significant greenhouse gas sources via regulations, market mechanisms and other actions; adopt regulations by January 1, 2011 to achieve the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective reductions in greenhouse gas; and convene an Environmental Justice Advisory Committee, and an Economic and Technology Advancement Advisory Committee to advise CARB.
Greenhouse Effect
Trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earth's surface. Some of the heat flowing back toward space from the earth's surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the earth's surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase. (UNFCC)
Greenhouse Gas
Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include, but are not limited to, water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). (UNFCC)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The sum of gross value added, at purchasers' prices, by all resident and non-resident producers in the economy, plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products in a country or a geographic region for a given period, normally one year. It is calculated without deducting for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. (IPCC3)

H

Halocarbons
A collective term for the group of partially halogenated organic species, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), halons, methyl chloride, methyl bromide, etc. Many of the halocarbons have large Global Warming Potentials. The chlorine and bromine-containing halocarbons are also involved in the depletion of the ozone layer. (IPCC2)
Hydrocarbons
Strictly defined as molecules containing only hydrogen and carbon. The term is often used more broadly to include any molecules in petroleum which also contains molecules with S, N, or O An unsaturated hydrocarbon is any hydrocarbon containing olefinic or aromatic structures. (IPCC)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Compounds containing only hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon atoms. They were introduced as alternatives to ozone depleting substances in serving many industrial, commercial, and personal needs. HFCs are emitted as by-products of industrial processes and are also used in manufacturing. They do not significantly deplete the stratospheric ozone layer, but they are powerful greenhouse gases with global warming potentials ranging from 140 (HFC-152a) to 11,700 (HFC-23). (USEPA1)

I

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The IPCC was established jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988. The purpose of the IPCC is to assess information in the scientific and technical literature related to all significant components of the issue of climate change. The IPCC draws upon hundreds of the world's expert scientists as authors and thousands as expert reviewers. Leading experts on climate change and environmental, social, and economic sciences from some 60 nations have helped the IPCC to prepare periodic assessments of the scientific underpinnings for understanding global climate change and its consequences. With its capacity for reporting on climate change, its consequences, and the viability of adaptation and mitigation measures, the IPCC is also looked to as the official advisory body to the world's governments on the state of the science of the climate change issue. For example, the IPCC organized the development of internationally accepted methods for conducting national greenhouse gas emission inventories. (USEPA1)

K

Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC. It contains legally binding commitments, in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the Protocol (most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries and countries with economies in transition) agreed to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to 2012. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005. (IPCC2)

L

Land Use and Land Use Change
Land use refers to the total of arrangements, activities and inputs undertaken in a certain land cover type (a set of human actions). The term land use is also used in the sense of the social and economic purposes for which land is managed (e.g., grazing, timber extraction and conservation). Land use change refers to a change in the use or management of land by humans, which may lead to a change in land cover. Land cover and land use change may have an impact on the surface albedo, evapotranspiration, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, or other properties of the climate system and may thus have a radiative forcing and/or other impacts on climate, locally or globally. (IPCC2)
LULUCF
Acronym for "Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry", a category of activities in GHG inventories.

M

Methane (CH4)
A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 25 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, flooded rice fields, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion. The GWP is from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
Metric Ton
The tonne (t) or metric ton, sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is an international unit of mass. A metric ton is equal to a Megagram (Mg), 1000 kilograms, 2204.6 pounds, or 1.1023 short tons.
Million Metric Tons (MMT)
Common measurement used in GHG inventories. It is equal to a Teragram (Tg).
Mobile Sources
Sources of air pollution such as automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, off-road vehicles, boats, and airplanes. (CARB)
Model
A model is a quantitatively-based abstraction of a real-world situation which may simplify or neglect certain features to better focus on its more important elements. (IPCC)
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Residential solid waste and some non-hazardous commercial, institutional, and industrial wastes. This material is generally sent to municipal landfills for disposal. (USEPA1)

N

Natural Sources
Non-manmade emission sources, including biological and geological sources, wildfires, and windblown dust. (CARB)
Nitrogen fixation
Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas into forms useful to plants and other organisms by lightning, bacteria, and blue-green algae; it is part of the nitrogen cycle. (UNFCC)
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Gases consisting of one molecule of nitrogen and varying numbers of oxygen molecules. Nitrogen oxides are produced in the emissions of vehicle exhausts and from power stations. In the atmosphere, nitrogen oxides can contribute to formation of photochemical ozone (smog), can impair visibility, and have health consequences; they are thus considered pollutants. (NASA)
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
A powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 298 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Major sources of nitrous oxide include soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organic fertilizers, manure management, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning. The GWP is from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).

O

Ozone (O3)
Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen (O3), is a gaseous atmospheric constituent. In the troposphere, it is created both naturally and by photochemical reactions involving gases resulting from human activities (smog). Tropospheric ozone acts as a greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere, it is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen (O2). Stratospheric ozone plays a dominant role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Its concentration is highest in the ozone layer. (IPCC2)
Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
A compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) include CFCs, HCFCs, halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. ODS are generally very stable in the troposphere and only degrade under intense ultraviolet light in the stratosphere. When they break down, they release chlorine or bromine atoms, which then deplete ozone. (IPCC)

P

Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
A group of human-made chemicals composed of carbon and fluorine only. These chemicals (predominantly CF4 and C2F6) were introduced as alternatives, along with hydrofluorocarbons, to the ozone depleting substances. In addition, PFCs are emitted as by-products of industrial processes and are also used in manufacturing. PFCs do not harm the stratospheric ozone layer, but they are powerful greenhouse gases: CF4 has a global warming potential (GWP) of 7,390 and C2F6 has a GWP of 12,200. The GWP is from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants take carbon dioxide from the air (or bicarbonate in water) to build carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. There are several pathways of photosynthesis with different responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. (IPCC2)
Point Sources
Specific points of origin where pollutants are emitted into the atmosphere such as factory smokestacks. (CARB)
Process emissions
Emissions from industrial processes involving chemical transformations other than combustion. (IPCC)

R

Radiative Forcing
A change in the balance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing infrared (i.e., thermal) radiation. Without any radiative forcing, solar radiation coming to the Earth would continue to be approximately equal to the infrared radiation emitted from the Earth. The addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere traps an increased fraction of the infrared radiation, reradiating it back toward the surface of the Earth and thereby creates a warming influence. (UNFCC)
Reforestation
Planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that have been converted to some other use. (IPCC2)
Regeneration
The act of renewing tree cover by establishing young trees, naturally or artificially - note regeneration usually maintains the same forest type and is done promptly after the previous stand or forest was removed. (CSU)
Residence Time
Average time spent in a reservoir by an individual atom or molecule. Also, this term is used to define the age of a molecule when it leaves the reservoir. With respect to greenhouse gases, residence time usually refers to how long a particular molecule remains in the atmosphere. (UNFCC)
Reservoir
Either (1) a component or components of the climate system where a greenhouse gas or a precursor of a greenhouse gas is stored; or (2) Water bodies regulated for human activities (energy production, irrigation, navigation, recreation etc.) where substantial changes in water area due to water level regulation may occur. (IPCC)
Respiration
The process whereby living organisms convert organic matter to carbon dioxide, releasing energy and consuming molecular oxygen. (IPCC2)

S

Short Ton
Common measurement for a ton in the United States. A short ton is equal to 2,000 lbs or 0.907 metric tons. (USEPA1)
Sink
Any process, activity or mechanism that removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas or aerosol from the atmosphere. (IPCC2)
Solar Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun. It is also referred to as shortwave radiation. Solar radiation has a distinctive range of wavelengths (spectrum) determined by the temperature of the Sun, peaking in visible wavelengths. (IPCC2)
Source
Any process, activity or mechanism that releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas or aerosol into the atmosphere. (IPCC2)
Stationary Sources
Non-mobile sources such as power plants, refineries, and manufacturing facilities which emit air pollutants. (CARB)
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
A compound composed of one sulfur and two oxygen molecules. Sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere through natural and anthropogenic processes is changed in a complex series of chemical reactions in the atmosphere to sulfate aerosols. These aerosols are believed to result in negative radiative forcing (i.e., tending to cool the Earth's surface) and do result in acid deposition (e.g., acid rain). (UNFCC)
Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)
A colorless gas soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly soluble in water. A very powerful greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 22,800 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). SF6 is used primarily in electrical transmission and distribution systems and as a dielectric in electronics. This GWP is from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).

T

Terrestrial carbon sequestration
It is the process through which carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is absorbed by trees, plants and crops through photosynthesis, and stored as carbon in biomass (tree trunks, branches, foliage and roots) and soils. The term "sinks" is also used to refer to forests, croplands, and grazing lands, and their ability to sequester carbon. Agriculture and forestry activities can also release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, a carbon sink occurs when carbon sequestration is greater than carbon releases over some time period.(USEPA3)
Total Organic Gases (TOG)
Gaseous organic compounds, including reactive organic gases and the relatively unreactive organic gases such as methane. (CARB)
Transparency
Transparency means that the assumptions and methodologies used for an inventory should be clearly explained to facilitate replication and assessment of the inventory by users of the reported information. The transparency of inventories is fundamental to the success of the process for the communication and consideration of information. (IPCC)
Trend
The trend of a quantity measures its change over a time period, with a positive trend value indicating growth in the quantity, and a negative value indicating a decrease. It is defined as the ratio of the change in the quantity over the time period, divided by the initial value of the quantity, and is usually expressed either as a percentage or a fraction. (IPCC)

W

Water Vapor
The most abundant greenhouse gas; it is the water present in the atmosphere in gaseous form. Water vapor is an important part of the natural greenhouse effect. While humans are not significantly increasing its concentration, it contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect because the warming influence of greenhouse gases leads to a positive water vapor feedback. In addition to its role as a natural greenhouse gas, water vapor plays an important role in regulating the temperature of the planet because clouds form when excess water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form ice and water droplets and precipitation. (UNFCC)
Weather
Atmospheric condition at any given time or place. It is measured in terms of such things as wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day, and season-to-season. Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather", or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. A simple way of remembering the difference is that climate is what you expect (e.g. cold winters) and 'weather' is what you get (e.g. a blizzard). (USEPA1)

Sources of Definitions:

  • CARB = California Air Resources Board - Glossary of Air Pollution Terms
  • CSU = Colorado State Forest Service - Forestry and Wildfire Glossary
  • EIA = Energy Information Administration - Glossary
  • IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories - Glossary
  • IPCC2 = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis" - Annex 1 - Glossary
  • IPCC3 = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC Fourth Assessment Report - Working Group III Report "Mitigation of Climate Change" - Annex 1 - Glossary
  • NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Earth Observatory Glossary
  • UNFCC = United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - GHG Inventories Glossary
  • USEPA1 = United States Environmental Protection Agency - Climate Change Glossary
  • USEPA2 = U.S. EPA - Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006.(April 2008)USEPA #430-R-08-005 Executive Summary
  • USEPA3 = U.S. EPA - Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry faq
  • USEPA4 = U.S. EPA - Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background
preload