KERN COUNTY AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT
RULE 410.7 - GRAPHIC ARTS
(Adopted 6/29/81, Renumbered 5/89, Amended 5/6/91, 3/7/96)
This Rule is applicable to all graphic arts printing operations as defined in Section II. of this Rule.
A. Coating: The application of a uniform layer of material across the entire width of a substrate. Those
machines which have both coating and printing units should be considered as performing a printing operation.
B. Control Device: Equipment such as an incinerator or adsorber, or cooler/condenser filtration used to prevent air pollutants from being emitted into the atmosphere.
C. Converting Operation: Coating, waxing, laminating, extrusion coating, or printing, to fabricate base materials which are then used to produce wraps, bags, and other preformed packages.
D. Doctor Blade: A steel blade used to scrape excess ink from a printing plate or inking cylinder.
E. Dryer: A hot air, high velocity system used to dry inks on printed or coated substrate.
F. Flexible Packaging Industry: Establishments that convert materials consisting of light gauge papers, plastic films, cellulosic films such as cellophane, thin gauge metal sheets such as aluminum foil or steel foil, and combinations thereof into a variety of product packages.
G. Flexographic Printing: The application of words, designs or pictures to a substrate by means of a roll printing technique in which the pattern is applied to an image carrier made of rubber or other elastomeric materials. As compared to gravure (intaglio) printing, the image to be printed via flexography is raised above the carrier surface, while in the gravure process the image to be printed is sunk below the surface.
H. Fountain Solution: Solution composed mainly of water, gum arabic, and other additives which is applied to the lithographic plate to maintain the hydrophilic properties of the non-image areas.
I. Fugitive Emissions: Emissions of VOC from any portion of the printing, coating, or laminating operation other than from the dryer.
J. Graphic Arts Industry: Those operations employing gravure, flexography, letterpress, lithography, screen, or any coating of laminating process to produce published products and packages.
K. Gravure Printing: An intaglio printing operation in which the ink is transferred from minute etched wells on a cylinder to the substrate which is supported by an impression roller with excess ink removed from the cylinder by a doctor blade.
L. Intaglio Printing: Printing done from a plate or cylinder in which the image is sunk below (etched or engraved into) the surface.
M. Letterpress Printing: A method where the image area is raised relative to the non-image area and the
ink is transferred to the paper directly from the image.
N. Line: The minimum equipment which is required for the application and/or drying of inks and/or curing of ultraviolet coatings of inks, or coatings on a substrate, including ink the and/or coating applicators and drying systems, and associated ink and coating agitation and delivery systems.
O. Non-Heatset Inks: An ink which dries by oxidation and is absorbed into the substrate without use of heat from dryers or ovens.
P. Nonporous Substrate: Any substance other than paper or paperboard, including but not limited to foil, polyethylene, polypropylene, cellophane, metallized polyester, nylon, and polyethylene terephthalate (mylar), but not including wood, metal, or ceramic materials.
Q. Offset Lithographic Printing: A plane-o-graphic method in which the image and non-image areas are on the same plane and the ink is offset from a plate to a rubber blanket, and then from the blanket to the substrate.
R. Packaging Gravure: Gravure printing on paper, paperboard, foil, film, or other substrates which are to be used to produce containers or packages.
S. Porous Substrate: Paper or paperboard.
T. Publication Gravure: Gravure printing on paper which is subsequently formed into books, magazines, catalogs, brochures, directories, newspaper supplements or other types of printed material.
U. Screen Printing: A commercial and industrial printing technique where which involves passage of a printing medium, such as ink, through a taut fabric to which a refined form of stencil has been applied. The stencil openings determine the form and dimension of the imprint.
V. Specialty Gravure Printing: Printing that uses the gravure process for production of wall and floor covering, decorated household paper products such as towels and tissues, cigarette filter tips, vinyl upholstery, woodgrains, and a wide variety of other products.
W. Web: A continuous sheet of substrate.
X. Web Feed: An automatic system which supplies substrates from a web.
Y. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): Any compound containing at least one atom of carbon except for compounds exempted by Rule 102, Subsection L.
The requirements of this Rule, except for Subsection V.A, shall not apply to any printing, coating, or laminating facility which emits less than 75 pounds per day of volatile organic compounds. Once a facility exceeds this exemption threshold it shall become subject to the requirements of this Rule.
A. Any person operating a publication gravure printing line shall comply with one of the following:
B. Any person operating any graphic arts printing line for packaging gravure, specialty gravure, screen printing, flexographic printing, offset lithography, letterpress printing or related coating or laminating process, printing or coating on porous or non-porous substrate, shall comply with one of the following:
C. Low VOC Ink, Coating, Adhesive, and Fountain Solution:
Any ink, coating or adhesive must satisfy Subsection IV.C.1. in order to be deemed a low VOC ink, coating, or adhesive for the purposes of this Rule.
D. Emission Control System:
An emission control system is a system for reducing emissions of VOC consisting of collection and control devices which includes the following:
E. Evaporative Loss Minimization:
V. Administrative Requirements
A. Record Keeping
Any person subject to the provisions of this Rule (including exempt facilities) shall comply with the following requirements:
a. Mix ratio of components used,
b. VOC content and specific chemical constituents of inks and coatings as applied,
c. VOC content and specific chemical constituents of solvents used for surface preparation and cleanup.
a. Volume ink/solvent mix ratio,
b. VOC content of ink and/or coating (pounds/gallon),
c. Volume of each coating or ink used (gallons), and
d. VOC content and quantity of cleanup solvent used (gallons).
a. VOC content of ink and/or coating (pounds/gallon),
b. Volume of each coating or ink used (gallons), and
c. VOC content and quantity of cleanup solvent used (gallons).
B. Test Methods
VI. Compliance Schedule
A. Any person subject to the requirements of this Rule due to revisions adopted May 6, 1991, shall submit a compliance plan which designates the measures and increments of progress that will be taken to achieve compliance. As a minimum, the compliance plan shall include provisions for reducing the amounts of VOC used in all inks, coatings, and adhesives applied on the line, in accordance with the following schedule:
B. Any person subject to the requirements of this rule other than described in Subsection IV.A.1. by January 1, 1987, shall be in full compliance with the requirements of the Rule.
The allowable emissions necessary to comply with the overall percent reduction, shall be calculated using as
a baseline the average of the actual amount of solvent used for each line on a weight by solids basis for any two
years selected from the calendar years 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981. The control plan required under this section shall
identify which two of the four years have been selected, and the plan shall delineate the quantity of solvent used
for each line for each of the two baseline years.
Baseline daily emissions shall be the sum of VOC emissions during the baseline years divided by the number of operating days.