Smoke Emission Estimation

This page last reviewed June 18, 2008

This web page provides background information, downloads and links to ARB biomass burning methodologies. The burning of vegetation comprises a substantial portion of the particulate emission inventory in California. Accurate and comprehensive activity data is key to a high quality inventories, and consistent and well documented methodologies are an essential backbone to State Implementation Plans (SIP). Below are ARB recommended methods for estimating emissions from agricultural related burning, prescribed burns and wildfires. These methods are divided into two methodologies: the Emission Estimation System (EES) model and the managed burn Emission Factor Table.


The "EES model" can be used to estimate emissions for forest type fires such as wildfires, prescribed burns, wildland fire use fires (WFU) and range improvement burns. The managed burn Emission Factor Table can be used to generate emission for agricultural related burning of orchard prunings, and agricultural burning of field and row crops, as well as burning for weed abatement, range improvement and other waste burning.


Table 1 below shows the emission inventory categories (EIC) related to biomass burning, including the EIC name, EIC code, and a brief category description. Table 1 also groups Managed Burn and Disposal categories programmatically and methodologically into three groups: Agricultural (Ag) Burning, Prescribed Burning, and Other Burning.



Table1
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Emission Estimation System (EES) Model


Wildfires, Prescribed Burns and Wildland Fire Use Fires


Download: EES Model (zip file-48mb)

The EES Model is a Geographic Information System (GIS) based application that can be used to generate emission for prescribe burns (Rx), wildfires, and WFU.

The EES Model uses GIS to determine the vegetation burned in a fire, then it uses the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM 4.0) methodology to determine the fuel loading characteristics for fuel component by vegetation type. The EES then applies the appropriate emission factor to generate smoke emissions per fire event. For additional information and an example wildfire calculation, go to:




The EES Model was developed for ARB by UC Berkeley's Center for the Assessment and Monitoring of Forest and Environmental Resources (CAMFER) laboratory. The EES model was developed in two phases. To view the CAMFER reports documenting methods used to create the EES model click on the links below:

To find out more about FOFEM methods, or to download the FOFEM application, go to FOFEM.

Table 2. Prescribed Burning Emission Factors by Fuel Component (lbs/ton)

  PM10 PM2.5 N2O CH4 CO2
Fuel Component Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry
Litter, wood 0-1 in 9.3 9.3 9.3 7.9 7.9 7.9 0.5 0.5 0.5 2.1 2.1 2.1 3,482.7 3,482.7 3,482.7
Wood 1-3 in 14.0 14.0 14.0 11.9 11.9 11.9 0.5 0.5 0.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 3,372.7 3,372.7 3,372.7
Wood 3+ in 26.6 21.6 19.1 22.5 18.3 16.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 10.8 8.2 7.0 3,079.4 3,196.8 3,255.4
Herb, shrub, regen 25.1 25.1 25.1 21.3 21.3 21.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 10.0 10.0 10.0 3,116.1 3,116.1 3,116.1
Duff 28.2 30.4 30.4 23.9 25.8 25.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 11.5 12.6 12.6 3,042.8 2,991.5 2,991.5
Canopy Fuels 25.1 25.1 25.1 21.3 21.3 21.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 10.0 10.0 10.0 3,116.1 3,116.1 3,116.1
  TNMHC NH3 NOx SO2 CO
Fuel Component Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry Wet Mod Dry
Litter, wood 0-1 in 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 8.2 8.2 8.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 52.4 52.4 52.4
Wood 1-3 in 7.8 7.8 7.8 1.1 1.1 1.1 8.0 8.0 8.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 111.4 111.4 111.4
Wood 3+ in 18.8 14.4 12.2 2.7 2.1 1.7 7.3 7.6 7.7 2.2 2.3 2.4 268.9 205.8 174.4
Herb, shrub, regen 17.4 17.4 17.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 7.4 7.4 7.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 249.2 249.2 249.2
Duff 20.2 22.1 22.1 2.9 3.2 3.2 7.2 7.1 7.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 288.6 316.1 316.1
Canopy Fuels 17.4 17.4 17.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 7.4 7.4 7.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 249.2 249.2 249.2

Agricultural Burn


Agricultural Burning and Other Managed Burns
Ag Burning-Field Crops and Pruning, Weed Abatement,
Rangeland Improvement, and Waste Burning (unspecified)


Download:
Managed Burn Emission Factor Table (Excel-35K)

Sample Reporting Spreadsheet (Excel-643K)

The managed burn factors are used to calculate emissions for agricultural burning - field crops, agricultural burning - pruning, weed abatement, and rangeland improvement categories. The table provides the emission factors and fuel loading factors by fuel type. To calculate emissions by fuel type, multiply the acres burned by the crop specific fuel loading factor, then multiply the calculated tons of material burned by the crop specific emission factors for each pollutant. If tons of material are available, simply multiply tons by the crop specific emission factors provided in the table. For further information and to view a sample calculation, go to the Agricultural Burn Emission Estimation Methodology.

Emission factors are provided for PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, VOC, and CO. Background information for these emission factors and the fuel loading factors are explained in the Agricultural Burning Emission Factors Memo dated August 17, 2000. Below are additional links to background information for the emission factors and fuel loading factors:



pile burn


Forest Burning - Pile Burning


ARB staff is currently working on expanding the suite of emission factors for this category.




CEIDARS format spreadsheet for inventory submittals:

Download CEIDARS format spreadsheet


Power Point Presentation:

IASC Meeting Presentation 1-10-07 - Monterey


For additional information on smoke emission estimation methods or on this web page please contact ARB staff member Neva Lowery at (916) 323-4887

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