Off-Road Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Equipment

This page last reviewed August 7, 2008.


elecforklift Many gasoline and LPG engines in this category are similar to, or derived from, early 1980s automobile engines. In response to 1994 State Implementation Plan (SIP) control measure M11, staff proposed emission control regulations for new engines to be phased-in beginning in 2001, based on the use of closed-loop three-way catalyst systems or equivalent technology. This regulatory item was considered by the Board on October 22, 1998, and approved by OAL in October 1999. SIP control measure M12 expects the U.S. EPA to adopt similar standards for preempted equipment. In December 2000, the U.S. EPA published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) for Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) engines. For more information regarding the U.S. EPA upcoming LSI engine rule please see the U.S. EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality website.

On October 23, 2003, the Board revised and adopted the 2003 State and Federal Strategy for the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The Strategy identifies a series of new State commitments that reduce criteria pollutant emissions and achieve the next increment of progress toward meeting current federal health-based air quality standards by 2010. On January 9, 2004, the Board submitted the final Strategy to the U.S. EPA for approval as a SIP revision.

The Strategy proposes 19 defined measures that ARB staff would develop, covering on-road vehicles, off-road equipment, marine vessels / ports, fuels and refueling, and consumer products. Two of the mobile source measures address emissions from off-road equipment with large spark ignition (LSI) engines. The first measure, "OFF-ROAD LSI-1: Lower Emission Standards for New Off-Road Non-Preempt Gas Engines [Spark Ignition Engines 25 hp and Greater]," proposes to strengthen the emission standard for oxides of nitrogen (NOX) for new LSI engines from 3.0 grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr) to 2.0 g/bhp-hr in 2007 to harmonize with the 2007 federal standard. The second measure, "OFF-ROAD LSI-2 (Consolidated): Clean Up Off-Road Gas Equipment Fleet Through Retrofit Controls and New Emission Standards [Spark Ignition Engines 25 hp and Greater]," proposes retrofit controls and more stringent new emission standards, beyond the alignment with federal standards discussed in OFF-ROAD LSI-1, to increase the use of zero- and near zero-emission forklifts.