Ocean-Going Vessels Fuel Rule - Emission Measurement

This page last reviewed June 24, 2012

Ocean-Going Vessels Emission Measurement
Reports and Publications

red diamond bullet The California Air Resources Board (ARB) staff has developed Recommended Emissions Testing Guidelines for Ocean-going Vessels (guidelines) to provide testing guidance in support of control equipment manufacturers, Port programs and regulatory requirements.
Recommended Emissions Testing Guidelines for Ocean-going Vessels (Version 1, June 20, 2012):
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red diamond bullet Measurement of Emissions from the Main Propulsion Engine (MAN B&W 11K90MC-C) on a Panamax Class Container Ship. (3.1M)
Final Report to the California Air Resources Board under Contract # 05-412.  April 2009.

red diamond bullet Measurement of Gaseous Emissions from the Boiler Operating on a Panamax Class Container Vessel.  (1.0M)
Final Report to the California Air Resources Board under Contract # 05-412.  May 2009.

red diamond bullet Measurement of Criteria and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Auxiliary Engines on Ocean-Going Vessels Operating on Heavy Fuel Oil and Marine Diesel Oil.  (4.7M)
Final Report to the California Air Resources Board under Contract # 03-345.  April 2009.

red diamond bullet Effect of Selective Catalytic Reduction Unit on Emissions from an Auxiliary Engine on an Ocean-Going Vessel. (1.4M)
Final Report to the California Air Resources Board under Contract # 03-345.  April 2009.

red diamond bullet Criteria Emissions from the Main Propulsion Engine of a Post-Panamax Class Container Vessel Using Distillate and Residual Fuels. (with revisions to Table 4) (1.39M)
Final Report to the Air Resources Board under Contract # 06-412.  April 2009.

red diamond bullet A Critical Review of Ocean-Going Vessel Particulate Matter Emission Factors. (109K) is now available.  In this report, Air Resources Board staff has conducted an exhaustive evaluation of available data to assess ocean-going vessel particulate matter (PM) emission factors. The goals of this assessment were to compile available test data and assess emission factors for main engines and auxiliary engines on ocean-going vessels.

In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern ocean going container vessel
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 42, Issue 21, July 2008, Pages 5504-5510
Harshit Agrawal, Quentin G.J. Malloy, William A. Welch, J. Wayne Miller, David R. Cocker III

Ocean going vessels are one of the largest uncontrolled sources of pollutants and the emissions data from these sources are scarce. This paper provides the emission measurements of gases, particulate matter (PM), metals, ions, elemental and organic carbon, conducted from the main engine of an ocean going PanaMax class container vessel, at certification cycle and at vessel speed reduction mode, during actual operation at sea. The weighted emission factor (g kW−1 h−1) of PM and NOx were 1.64 and 18.2, respectively, for the main engine operating on a 2.05 wt% sulfur heavy fuel oil (HFO). The NOx emissions at the vessel speed reduction mode (8% of full load) are 30% higher than at 52% engine power, the normal cruise speed. The composition of PM, from main engine is dominated by sulfate and water bound with sulfate (about 80% of total PM) and organic carbon constitutes about 15% of the PM. Sulfur, vanadium and nickel are the significant elements in the exhaust from the engine running on the HFO. At the point of sampling 3.7–5.0% of the fuel sulfur was converted to sulfate.

Comprehensive Simultaneous Shipboard and Airborne Characterization of Exhaust from a Modern Container Ship at Sea
Environ. Sci. Technol.
Shane M. Murphy, Harshit Agrawal, Armin Sorooshian, Luz T. Padr, Harmony Gates, Scott Hersey, W.A. Welch, H. Jung , J. W. Miller, David R. Cocker, III, Athanasios Nenes , Haflidi H. Jonsson , Richard C. Flagan and John H. Seinfeld
We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 0.03, and increased to 0.30 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the diameter where the mass fraction of organic aerosol begins to increase significantly. The particle number emission factor estimated from this study is 1.3 1016 (kg fuel)−1, with less than 1/10 of the particles having diameters above 100 nm; 24% of particles (>10 nm in diameter) activate into cloud droplets at 0.3% supersaturation.

Emission Measurements from a Crude Oil Tanker at Sea
(This test program was not funded by ARB, but included by permission).
Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42 (19), pp 7098–7103
Harshit Agrawal, William A. Welch, J. Wayne Miller and David R. Cocker 
This work presents an all-inclusive set of regulated and nonregulated emission factors for the main propulsion engine (ME), auxiliary engine (AE) and an auxiliary boiler on a Suezmax class tanker while operating at sea. The data include criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter), a greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide), the principal speciated hydrocarbons needed for human health risk assessments, and a detailed analysis of the PM into its primary constituents (ions, elements, organic, and elemental carbon). Measurements followed ISO 8178-1 methods with modifications described in the paper. The vessel burned two fuels: a heavy fuel oil in the ME and boiler and a distillate fuel in the AE.  The weighted NOx emissions for the ME and AE are 19.87 0.95 and 13.57 0.31 g/kWh, respectively. The weighted PM mass emissions factor is 1.60 0.08 g/kWh for the ME and 0.141 0.005 g/kWh for the AE, with the sulfate content of the PM being the root cause for the difference. For the ME, sulfate with associated water is about 75% of total PM mass, and the organic carbon ranges from 15 to 25% of the PM mass. A deeper analysis showed that the conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfate in the ME ranged from 1.4 to 5%. This article also provides emission factors for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy alkanes, carbonyls, light hydrocarbon species, metals, and ions for the ME, AE, and the boiler.

Ocean-Going Vessels Fuel Rule