Reactivity-Related Research Projects

This page last reviewed October 1, 2012



This page lists current and past reactivity-related research projects at the ARB and reactivity related literature available. The contents of this page can be accessed from the link headings below


Current Projects

Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism Development
Reactivity Assessment Emission Inventory

Reactivity Literature

General Reactivity Scales
Reactivity Comparisons Evaluation of Reactivity Scales
Uncertainty Analyses Reactivity-Based Regulations
Chamber Measurements of Reactivity

Current ARB reactivity-related research projects (ordered by subject and author)

Atmospheric Chemistry

Stutz J, B. Jobson, and A. Sumner "Impact of Halogen Species on the Air Quality in California Coastal Areas," $166,964, 2005. (final report, 7.91 MB)

Finlayson-Pitts B. "Impacts of NOx surface reactions on the formation of particles, ozone, and the development of control strategy options," $900,000, 2003.

Atkinson R. and J. Arey "Studies of the atmospheric chemistry of volatile organic compounds and of their atmospheric reaction products," $300,000, 2003. (final report, 0.97 MB)

Mechanism Development

Carter W.P.L. "Development and evaluation of a gas-phase atmospheric reaction mechanism for low NOx conditions," $80,000, 2003. (final report, 3.13 MB)

Reactivity Assessment

Carter W.P.L. "Reactivity Estimates for Selected Consumer Product Compounds," Final Report, 944 KB, February 19, 2008

Carter W.P.L. "Evaluation of atmospheric impacts of selected coatings VOC emissions," $300,000, 2004. (final report, 1.28 MB)

Carter W.P.L. "Development and application of improved methods for measurements of ozone formation potentials of volatile organic compounds," $300,000, 2002 (final report, 1.4 MB).

Harley H., J. Milford, and A. Russell "Development of reactivity scales via 3-D grid modeling of California ozone episodes," $240,000, 2002 (final report, 0.6 MB)

Russell A. "Assessment of the ozone and aerosol forming potentials (reactivities) of organic compounds over the Eastern United States," $15,000, 2002 (final report, 6.8 MB)

Emission Inventory

Censullo A., D. Jones, and M. Wills "Investigation of low reactivity solvents for use in consumer products," $85,000, 2002 (final report, 0.4 MB).


Reactivity Literature (ordered by subject and author)

General

Bergin, M.S., A.G. Russell, W.P.L. Carter, B.E. Croes, and J.H. Seinfeld (1998) "Ozone Control and VOC Reactivity," Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 205-233.

Russell, A., J. Milford, M.S. Bergin, S. McBride, L. McNair, Y. Tang, W.R. Stockwell, and B. Croes (1995) "Urban ozone control and atmospheric reactivity of organic gases," Science, 269: 491-495, July 28.

Jeffries, H.E., and R Crouse (1991) "Scientific and Technical Issues Related to the Application of Incremental Reactivity, Part II: Explaining Mechanism Differences," report prepared for Western States Petroleum Association, Glendale, CA, July 29.

National Research Council (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 403-411.

Jeffries, H.E., and R.Crouse (1990) "Scientific and Technical Issues Related to the Application of Incremental Reactivity," report prepared for Western States Petroleum Association, Glendale, CA, September 17.


Reactivity Scales

Derwent, R.G., M.E. Jenkin, Saudners, (2001) "Characterization of the reactivities of VOCs using a Master Chemical Mechanism," Journal of Air and Waster Management Association, 51, 669-707

Stockwell, W., Geiger, Becker (2001) "Estimation of incremental reactivities for multiple day scenarios: an application to highly oxygenated solvents & fuel additives," Atmos. Environ., 34, 4711-4717.

Jenkin, Hayman (1999) "Photochemical ozone creation potentials for oxygenated volatile organic compounds: sensitivity to variation in kinetic and mechanistic parameters," Atmos. Environ., 33, 1275-1293

Kelly, Chang (1999) "An experimental investigation of incremental reactivity of volatile organic compounds," 33, 2102-2110.

Khan, Y-J. Yang, and A. Russell (1999) "Photochemical reactivity of common solvents: compare urban and rural domains," Atmos. Environ., 33, 1085-1092.

Dimitriades, B. (1996) "Scientific basis for the VOC reactivity issues raised by Section 193(e) of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 46: 963-970.

Bergin, M.S., A.G. Russell, and J.B. Milford (1995) "Quantification of individual VOC reactivity using a chemically detailed, three-dimensional photochemical model," Environ. Sci. Technol., 29: 3029-3037.

Bowman, F.M., and J.H. Seinfeld (1994a) "Ozone productivity of atmospheric organics," J. Geophys. Res., 99: 5309-5324.

Bowman, F.M., and J.H. Seinfeld (1994b) "Fundamental basis of incremental reactivities of organics in ozone formation in VOC/NOX mixtures," Atmos. Environ., 28: 3359-3368.

Carter, W. P. L. (1994a) "Development of ozone reactivity scales for organic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 44: 881-899.

Carter, W. P. L. (1994b) "Calculation of Reactivity Scales Using an Updated Carbon Bond IV Mechanism," report for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, July 11.

Andersson-Skold, Y., P. Grenfelt, and K. Pleijel (1992) "Photochemical ozone creation potentials - A study of different concepts," J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 42: 1152-1158.

Carter, W.P.L. (1991) "Development of Ozone Reactivity Scales for Volatile Organic Compounds," EPA 600/3-91-050, final report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C., August.

Derwent, R.G., and M.E. Jenkin (1991) "Hydrocarbons and long-range transport of ozone and PAN across Europe," Atmos. Environ., 25A: 1661-?.

Lowi, A., Jr., and W.P.L. Carter (1990) "A Method for Evaluating the Atmospheric Ozone Impact of Actual Vehicle Emissions," SAE Paper No. 900710, presented at the SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Michigan, February 26 - March 2.

Carter, W.P.L., and R. Atkinson (1989) "A computer modeling study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity," Environ. Sci. and Technol., 23: 864-880.

Carter, W.P.L., and R. Atkinson (1987) "An experimental study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity," Environ. Sci. Technol., 21: 670-679.

Dodge, M. (1984) "Combined effects of organic reactivity and NMHC/NOX ratio on photochemical oxidant formation -- A modeling study," Atmos. Environ., 18: 1657-1665.

Winer, A.M., Darnall, K.R., R. Atkinson, and J.N. Pitts, Jr. (1979) "Smog chamber study of the correlation of hydroxyl radical rate constants with ozone formation," Environ. Sci. Technol., 13: 822-826.

Darnall, K.R., A.C. Lloyd, A.M. Winer and J.N. Pitts, Jr. (1976) "Reactivity scale for atmospheric organic gases based on reaction with hydroxyl radical," Environ. Sci. Technol., 10: 692-696.

Pitts, J.N., Jr., A.C. Lloyd, A.M. Winer, Darnall, K.R., and G.J. Doyle (1976) "Development and application of a hydrocarbon reactivity scale based on reaction within the hydroxyl radical," Paper 76-31 of the Air Pollution Control Association 69nd Annual Meeting, June 27-July 1, 1976, Portland, OR.

Wu, Japar, and Niki (1976) "Relative reactivities of HO-hydrocarbon reactions from smog reactor studies," J. Env. Sci. & Health Env. Sci. & Engng., 11: 191-?.

Dimitriades, B., et al. (1975) "Development and Utility of Reactivity Scales From Smog Chamber Data," U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Washington, D.C.


Reactivity Comparisons

Chang T.Y., Nance, Kelly (1999) "Modeling smog chamber measurement of incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds," Atmos. Environ., 33, 4695-4708.

Duffy, Nelson, Ye, Weeks (1999) "Speciated HC profiles and calculated reactivities of exhaust and evaporative emission from Australia vehicles," Atmos. Environ., 33, 291-307

Benjamin, M.T., and A.M. Winer (1998) "Estimating the ozone-forming potential of urban trees and shrubs," Atmos. Environ., 32: 53-68.

Grosjean D., Grosjean E., Rasmullen (1998) "Ambient concentration, sources, emission rates and photochemical reactivity of C2-C10 hydrocarbon in orto Alegre, Brazil," Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 2061-2069

Bowman, F.M., and J.H. Seinfeld (1995) "Atmospheric chemistry of alternate fuels and reformulated gasoline components," Prog. in Energy and Comb. Sci., 21: 387-417.

Rieger, P., and W. McMahon (1991) "Speciation and reactivity determination of exhaust emissions from low emission gasoline and clean fueled vehicles," Paper 91-107.3 presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 16-21.

Chang, T.Y., and S.J. Rudy (1990) "Ozone-forming potential of organic emissions from alternative-fueled vehicles," Atmos. Environ., 24A: 2421-2430.

Dunker, A.M. (1990) "The relative reactivity of emissions from methanol-fueled and gasoline-fueled vehicles in forming ozone," Environ. Sci. Technol., 24: 853-862.

Carter, W.P.L. (1989a) "Estimates of Photochemical Reactivities of Solvent Species Used in Architectural Coatings," Paper 89-73.3 of the Air & Waste Management Association 82nd Annual Meeting, June 25-30, 1989, Anaheim, CA.

Carter, W.P.L. (1989b) "Ozone Reactivity Analysis of Emissions from Motor Vehicles," draft report for the Western Liquid Gas Association, July 11.

Chang, T.Y., S.J. Rudy, G. Kuntasal, and R.A. Gorse, Jr. (1989) "Impact of methanol vehicles on ozone air quality," Atmos. Environ., 23: 1629-1644.


Evaluation of Reactivity Scales

McNair, L.A., A.G. Russell, M.T. Odman, B.E. Croes, and L. Kao (1994) "Airshed model evaluation of reactivity adjustment factors calculated with the maximum incremental reactivity scale for Transitional-Low Emission Vehicles," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 44: 900-907.

McNair, L.A., A.G. Russell, and B.E. Croes (1993) "Testing of Species Reactivities and Reactivity Adjustment Factors (RAFs) Using an Airshed Model," Paper 93-WA-69A.06, Air & Waste Management Association 86th Annual Meeting, June 13-18, 1993, Denver, Colorado.

McNair, L., A. Russell, and M.T. Odman (1992) "Airshed calculation of the sensitivity of pollutant formation to organic compound classes and oxygenates associated with alternative fuels," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 42: 174-178.

Russell, A.G., L.A. McNair, M.T. Odman, and N. Kumar (1991) "Organic Compound Reactivities and the Use of Alternative Fuels," Draft Final Report to the California Air Resources Board, Agreement #A832-112, May.

Russell, A. (1990) "Air quality modeling of alternative fuel use in Los Angeles, CA: Sensitivity of pollutant formation to individual pollutant compounds," Paper 90-96.9 for the Air & Waste Management Association 83rd Annual Meeting, June 24-29, 1990, Pittsburgh, PA.

Smylie, G.M., G.Z. Whitten, R.E. Morris, J.L. Fieber, and K. O'Connor (1990) "Technical Analysis of the ARB Staff Proposal for Hydrocarbon Reactivity Adjustment Factors for Clean Fuel/Low Emission Vehicle Regulations," Final Report SYSAPP-90/092 prepared for Western States Petroleum Association, 505 North Brand Blvd., Glendale, CA 91203, September 21.


Uncertainty Analyses

Wang L., J.B. Milford, and W.P.L. Carter (2000) "Reactivity estimates for aromatic compounds part 1: uncertainty in chamber-derived parameters," Atmos. Environ., 34, 4337-4348.

Wang L., J.B. Milford, and W.P.L. Carter (2000) "Reactivity estimates for aromatic compounds part 2: uncertainty in incremental reactivity," Atmos. Environ., 34, 4349-4360.

Bergin, M. S., A. G. Russell, and J. B. Milford (1997) "Effects of chemical mechanism uncertainties on the reactivity quantification of volatile organic compounds using a three-dimensional air quality model," 32, 694-703.

Bergin, M.S., A.G. Russell, Y-J. Yang, J.B. Milford, F. Kirchner, and W.R. Stockwell (1996) "Effects of Uncertainty in SAPRC90 Rate Constants and Product Yields on Reactivity Adjustment Factors for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle Emissions," Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, NREL/TP-7636, July.

Yang, Y-J., W.R. Stockwell, and J.B. Milford (1995a) "Uncertainties in incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds," Environ. Sci. Technol., 29: 1336-1345.

Yang, Y-J., and J.B. Milford (1995b) "Quantification of uncertainty in reactivity adjustment factors from reformulated gasolines and methanol fuels," Environ. Sci. Technol., 30: 196-203.

Yang, Y-J., M. Das, J.B. Milford, M.S. Bergin, A.G. Russell, and W.R. Stockwell (1994) "Quantification of Organic Compound Reactivities and Effects of Uncertainties in Rate Parameters: An Integrated Approach Using Formal Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis and Three Dimensional Air Quality Modeling," report prepared for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, August.


Reactivity-Based Regulations

Croes, B.E., J.R. Holmes, and A.C. Lloyd (1992) "Reactivity-based hydrocarbon controls: Scientific issues and potential regulatory applications," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 42: 657-661.

Weir, B.R., A.S. Rosenbaum, L.A. Gardner, G.Z. Whitten, and W.P.L. Carter (1988) "Architectural Coatings in the South Coast Air Basin: Survey, Reactivity and Toxicity Evaluation," Final Report to the South Coast Air Quality Management District, December.

Benson, S.W., et al. (1976) "Final Report of the Committee on Photochemical Reactivity to the Air Resources Board."

Trijonis, J.C., and K.W. Arledge (1976) "Utility of Reactivity Criteria in Organic Emission Control Strategies: Application to the Los Angeles Atmosphere", EPA/600/3-78/019, TRW/Environmental Services, Redondo Beach, CA.

Caplan, J.D. (1965) "Smog Chemistry Points the Way to Rational Vehicle Emission Control," SAE Paper No. 650641.


Chamber Measurements of Reactivity

Chang, T.Y., M.D. Hurley, B.I. Nance, and S.M. Japar (1998) "Reactivity-adjusted VOC measurement by airtrak: a feasibility study," Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 2124-2219.

Chang, T.Y., M.D. Hurley, B.I. Nance, and S.M. Japar (1996) "Modeling Photochemical Flow Reactor Measurements of VOC Reactivities," paper presented at the 89th Annual Air & Waste Meeting, Nashville, TN, June 23-28.

Hurley, M.D., and T.Y. Chang (1996) "Measurement of VOC Reactivities Using a Photochemical Flow Reactor," paper presented at the 89th Annual Air & Waste Meeting, Nashville, TN, June 23-28.

Jeffries, H.E., K.G. Sexton, and J. Yu (1996a) "Atmospheric Photochemical Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels," draft final report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, April.

Jeffries, H.E., K.G. Sexton, Rigsbee, and W. Li (1996b) "Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Reactivity as a Conserved Property Using an Airtrak," draft final report to the Coordinating Research Council (project CRC-AQ-5) and the Western States Petroleum Association (project DF-304-06), June.

Kelly, N.A., P. Wang, S. M. Japar, M. D. Hurley, T. J. Wallington (1996) "Measurement of the Atmosphere Reactivity of Emissions from Gasoline and Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Assessment of Available Methodologies, Second-Year Final Report," CRC Contract No. AQ-6-1-92, Environmental Research Consortium, and NREL Contract No. AF-2-112961, January.

Kleindienst, T.E., J.A. Stikeleather (?) (1996) "Photochemical Reactivity Studies of Emissions from Alternative Fuels," report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, March.

Carter, W.P.L. (1995) "Computer modeling of environmental chamber studies of maximum incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds," Atmos. Environ., 29: 2513-2527.

Carter, W.P.L., J.A. Pierce, D. Luo, and I.L. Malkina (1995a) "Environmental chamber studies of maximum incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds," Atmos. Environ., 29: 2499-2511.

Carter, W.P.L., D. Luo, I.L. Malkina, and J.A. Pierce (1995b) "Environmental Chamber Studies of Atmospheric Reactivities of Volatile Organic Compounds: Effects of Varying ROG Surrogate and NOX," final report to Coordinating Research Council, Project ME-9, California Air Resources Board, Contract A032-0692, and South Coast Air Quality Management District, Contract C91323, March 24.

Carter, W. P. L., D. Luo, I. L. Malkina, and J. A. Pierce (1995c) "Environmental Chamber Studies of Atmospheric Reactivities of Volatile Organic Compounds: Effects of Varying Chamber and Light Source," final report to National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Contract XZ-2-12075, Coordinating Research Council, Inc., Project M-9, California Air Resources Board, Contract A032-0692, and South Coast Air Quality Management District, Contract C91323, March 26.

Kelly, N.A., P. Wang, S.M. Japar, M.D. Hurley, and T.J. Wallington (1994) "Measurement of the Atmospheric Reactivity of Emissions from Gasoline and Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Assessment of Available Methadologies," final report to Coordinating Research Council, Contract AQ-6-1-92 and NREL Subcontract AF-2-11296-1, June 30.

Carter, W.P. L., J.A. Pierce, I.L. Malkina, D. Luo and W.D. Long (1993) "Environmental Chamber Studies of Maximum Incremental Reactivities of Volatile Organic Compounds," report to Coordinating Research Council, Project No. ME-9, California Air Resources Board Contract No. A032-0692; South Coast Air Quality Management District Contract No. C91323, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Cooperative Agreement No. CR-814396-01-0, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Contract No. 59166, and Dow Corning Corporation, April 1.

Jeffries, H.E., and K.G. Sexton (1993) "The Relative Ozone Forming Potential of Methanol Fueled Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicle Emissions in Outdoor Smog Chambers," draft final report to the Coordinating Research Council, Project No. ME-1, September.

Johnson, G.M., and S.M. Quigley (1989) "A universal monitor for photochemical smog," paper 89-29.8 of the Air & Waste Management Association 82nd Annual Meeting, June 25-30, 1989, Anaheim, CA.

Zafonte, L., C. Lai, and D. Daymon (1989) "Experimental Results From a Smog Chamber, Hydrocarbon Reactivity Study," Paper 89-73.3 of the Air & Waste Management Association 82nd Annual Meeting, June 25-30, 1989, Anaheim, CA.

Weir, B.R., A.S. Rosenbaum, L.A. Gardner, G.Z. Whitten, and W. Carter, (1988) "Architectural Coatings in the South Coast Air Basin: Survey, Reactivity, and Toxicity Evaluation," final report to the South Coast Management District, SYSAPP-88/137, Systems Applications, Inc, San Rafael, CA, December.

Jeffries, H.E., K.G. Sexton, T.P. Morris, H. Jackson, R.G. Goodman, R.M. Kamens, and M.S. Holleman (1985a) "Outdoor Smog Chamber Experiments Using Automobile Exhaust," final report EPA-600/3-85-032.

Jeffries, H.E., K.G. Sexton, and M.S. Holleman (1985b) "Outdoor Smog Chamber Experiments: Reactivity of Methanol Exhaust," final report EPA-600/3-85-009a, September.

Wilson, K. W., and G. J. Doyle (1970) "Investigation of Photochemical Reactivities of Organic Solvents," final report, SRI Project PSU-8029, Stanford Research Institute, Irvine, CA, September.


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