|"Development and Application of Ambient Aerosol Concentrators to
Conduct Health Effects Studies in the Los Angeles Basin," University of California, Los Angeles,
||The risk to public health from exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM)
is a major concern. While harmful effects from particulate matter exposure are well documented, a great deal
of controversy exists over the extent and nature of these effects. Studies are needed to determine the components
and size fraction of PM responsible for the adverse health outcomes. This proposal is for years three
through five in a five-year program, which uses innovative concentrator technology to study the mechanisms and
toxicity from the unique PM in California. During the first two years of this program, the investigators
designed and characterized the performance of the fine, ultrafine and coarse concentrators to be
used in inhalation studies. In addition, animal exposures and cell culture studies were initiated to
investigate the toxicity of particles at different locations in the Los Angeles Basin. The ultimate goal for this
program is the development of fully transportable facilities to concentrate coarse, fine and ultrafine particles
for the exposure of animal models, cell culture systems and human volunteers. These studies will be used to
determine cardiac and respiratory effects from particle exposure and will investigate size, site and seasonal differences
in ambient PM. The concentrator program is strengthened considerably by interactions and linkages with
other Federal and State programs, including the Air Resources Board's Children's Health Study. The complete
characterization of the PM exposures in this program will be performed in coordination with the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) funded Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
(SCPCS) programs. In addition, this investigation is a multi-campus effort allowing expertise to be drawn from
the University of California, Los Angles (UCLA), the University of Southern California (USC) and the University
of California, Irvine (UCI). Exposure to model systems using synthetic particles cannot mimic the variability
and complexity of the real life exposures to ambient PM. This program will result in the ability to characterize and
generate exposures to real-time ambient California PM in all its complexity. Understanding the relative toxicity
of size, site and seasonal differences in ambient PM is vital to the development of future
regulatory and research directions.
|"Improved Reactivity Estimates for Volatile Organic Compounds used
in Architectural Coatings," University of California Riverside, $240,102
||This proposal is an extension of an existing research project entitled "Evaluation
of Atmospheric Impacts of Selected Coatings VOC Emissions,". The overall objective of this project is
to reduce uncertainties in ozone impact estimates for selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from
architectural coatings. This project will include additional environmental chamber and direct reactivity
screening measurement research needed to increase our knowledge about the potential of VOCs in architectural
coatings to form ozone. The first task uses the next generation smog chamber to determine the effects
of selected types of coatings constituents on ozone formation under a range of reactant. The second task
applies a direct reactivity measurement method to a full range of compounds and petroleum distillates used
in architectural coatings in California. The results of this project will provide necessary information
regarding the feasibility of a
reactivity-based control strategy for architectural coatings.
|REQUESTS FOR PROPOSALS
|"Incidence and Severity of Component Malfunction and Tampering in
||The objective of this project is to estimate the incidence of malfunctions
and tampering that can increase PM or Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) emissions from on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles.
According to previous information, such faults have been common among on-road vehicles and can seriously augment
emissions. The contractor will obtain data from several different sources, including a literature review,
analysis of existing data from the ARB's heavy-duty
on-road inspection program, surveys of records at repair facilities, and road-side inspections to be carried out
in concert with staff from the Mobile Source Control Division. Another project, sponsored by the Coordinating
Research Council, will measure the emission effects of many of the malfunctions whose occurrence rates will be
estimated in the ARB-sponsored project. The ARB will use the information from both projects to improve the
emissions inventories for diesel vehicles and to design an inspection and maintenance program.
|"Estimating the Prevalence of Asbestos in Automotive Friction Products"
||The ARB has identified asbestos as a toxic air contaminant, and asbestos
is emitted from the wear of automotive friction products such as brakes. Although the U.S. EPA banned asbestos
from these products in 1989, that ban was subsequently overturned. Brake manufacturers had begun switching
to alternative materials, but some brakes still contain asbestos. Although data indicate that motor vehicles
may be a significant source of asbestos, the amount is unknown. The contractor will obtain the percentage
of asbestos in brakewear by weight, by analyzing brake dust samples taken from the vehicles being repaired.
The ARB would apply these values to generate an inventory of asbestos emissions from motor vehicles. Based
on these results, the ARB staff will be able to assess the potential need for regulatory control of asbestos
used in automotive friction products.
|"Alternatives to Automotive Consumer Products that use Volatile
Organic Compound (VOC) and / or Chlorinated Organic Compound Solvents"
||About 4.5 million aerosol spray cans and spray bottles of automotive cleaning
and degreasing products are sold in California each year. These automotive products are estimated to
emit 16.4 tons per day (tpd) of VOCs and 5.2 tpd of chlorinated toxic air contaminants (TACs). Automotive
products include brake cleaners, carburetor cleaners, engine degreasers, and general-purpose degreasers. Screening
tests will be used to identify the most promising near-zero-VOC alternatives to traditional automobile consumer
products. These alternatives will be evaluated and compared to the currently used automotive products in automotive
maintenance and repair facilities.
||The ARB has statewide responsibilities to reduce TAC emissions through its
Air Toxics Program, and to reduce VOC emissions through its Consumer Products Program. The work proposed in
this RFP could lead to feasible alternative formulations that would reduce emissions of VOCs and TACs from automotive
products. Therefore, the proposed research would support two important ARB programs.
|"Near-Source Exposure to Crystalline Silica in California: Pilot
Study," University of California, Davis, $249,970, Contract No. 98-348
||Crystalline silica is currently under consideration as a toxic air contaminant
(TAC) due to its potential human carcinogenic (lung cancer) and non-carcinogenic (bronchitis, silicosis) health
effects. Quantitative determination of crystalline silica levels in air samples downwind of industrial sources
is required to determine the general population's exposure to this potentially toxic air contaminant. A pilot
study was carried out at a sand and gravel plant as a representative crystalline silica stationary source.
The pilot study's objectives were to identify the best sampling and analytical techniques for quantifying
crystalline silica that can distinguish stationary source crystalline silica from background sources of fugitive
dust, and to determine the crystalline silica levels as a function of distance downwind of a stationary
source in California. The pilot study results indicate that the downwind crystalline silica and particulate
matter levels were very consistent at a given sampling location from
day-to-day, and were significantly higher than the upwind levels. The pilot study results highlight several sampling
and analytical issues that should be considered in future efforts to quantify the crystalline silica levels
downwind of large non-point sources such as sand and gravel plants, quarries, and construction sites. The
results also clearly indicate that further field sampling near crystalline silica sources is necessary in order
to quantify actual emissions from these sources. Thus, before crystalline silica is listed as a TAC by the
Board, significant more work needs to be done to understand the potential impacts of crystalline silica sources
on human health.
|"Adapting Biological Fingerprinting Methods to Source Apportionment
for Fugitive Dust," University of California, Davis, $408,929, Contract No. 97-321
||Fugitive dust from unpaved roads, construction sites, agriculture, and other
sources are a significant component of PM10 in both urban and rural areas of California. Conventional elemental
analysis cannot distinguish most dust sources from one another. Microbial communities within soil contain
biochemical material that can be used to differentiate among soils and identify fugitive dust sources.
The objectives of this research were to continue to develop biological tools to link fugitive dusts to
their source soils. This report covers work with fingerprinting methods based on two classes of biochemicals,
fatty acids and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Results of both methods are closely correlated with respect
to soil relationships. Nucleic acid profiles correlate with crop type and / or geographical location.
DNA fingerprints also contain distinguishing features specific to each sample. Mathematical techniques for
classifying soils were tested. They showed much promise for the classifying samples from known sites and identifying
the sources of profiles of unknown origin. This research will contribute to the ARB's ability to identify
the particular sources of soil dust causing violations of air quality standards and help to develop cost-effective
controls that focus on those sources.
|"Revegetation in the Antelope Valley for Particulate Matter Mitigation,"
University of California, Riverside, $29,956, Contract No. 99-317
||Fugitive dust from the bare soil of fallow or abandoned farmlands has caused
severe episodes of particulate air pollution (PM10) in the Antelope Valley. The natural desert vegetation
does not readily recolonize these lands, and they tend to persist as sources of dust for many years after
the cessation of farming. Previous efforts to plant ground cover have had very low success rates. The Dustbusters
program is a cooperative effort of business and local, state, and federal agencies to investigate reliable,
cost-effective dust control measures for fallow or abandoned farmland. The purpose of this ARB-funded portion of
the program was to study the factors governing the success of planting strategies using different plant species,
irrigation methods, and land treatments. This project focused on evaluating ground cover development, plant microenvironment,
and physiological responses of plantings in order to develop reliable planting strategies. Coupled with other work
of the Dustbusters cooperative, this project contributed to developing reliable dust control methods for use
in controlling the air quality impacts of cyclical agricultural expansion and contraction in the Antelope