|There is increasing concern about the emissions from
large ocean-going ships that burn low grade residual oil. In many locations along the west coast of the United
States, efforts have been made to substantially reduce sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. However, international
shipping is currently not regulated with respect to their emissions or the quality of fuel burned while in US territorial
waters. To investigate the influence of ship emissions on PM2.5 along the west coast, a series of data analyses
have been undertaken utilizing Positive Matrix Factorization to explore the nature of the sources affecting the
composition of samples collected at the coastal sites in the IMPROVE network and in west coast cities in the Speciation
Trends Networks. Data from Olympic National Park, Kalmiopsis, Redwood National Park, Point Reyes National Seashore,
Pinnacles National Monument, San Rafael, San Gabriel, and Aqua Tibia were analyzed to examine the impact of ship
emissions on rural coastal sites. Yosemite National Park data were analyzed as a control site where significant
impacts of primary ship emissions were not anticipated to be observed. Data from STN sites in Anchorage, AK, Seattle,
WA, Portland, OR, San Jose, CA, Los Angeles, CA, and San Diego, CA were also analyzed. Primary emissions from the
combustion of residual oil produce particles containing Ni and V. Source profiles for residual oil could be observed
in Seattle and San Diego. They could not be identified at the other STN sites (Anchorage, Portland, San Jose, and
Los Angeles). There were high Ni concentrations in San Jose, but no V and thus, it is highly unlikely that this
source is residual oil. Ni and V were observed at the LA sites, but it was not possible to resolve a source profile
for residual oil.
The clearest influence of ship emissions was in Seattle where multiple site results point clearly at the Port of
Seattle as a likely source area. However, the ship primary emissions do not represent a large source of PM2.5.
Examination of the residual oil burning and secondary sulfate source contributions suggests that there is a relationship
between a portion of the sulfate and the primary V-Ni bearing particles. There appears to be 0.82 ?g/m3 of sulfate
for every 1 ?g/m3 of primary oil combustion particles. Suggestions of similar relationships are observed elsewhere.
It is likely that this represents the primary SO3 emissions from the ship engines. The implication of these results
in terms of air quality management will be discussed.
|Philip K. Hopke, Ph.D. is the Bayard D. Clarkson Distinguished Professor at Clarkson
University and the Director of the Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science. He has published over 340
peer-reviewed journal papers, written one book and edited 5 others. Dr. Hopke is the immediate past Chair of the
CASAC, and he also chaired the CASAC Ambient Air Monitoring and Methods (AAMM) Subcommittee. He continues to serve
as a Science Advisory Board (SAB) Member. Professor Hopke is a Past President of the American Association for Aerosol
Research, and was a member of the National Research Council's Congressionally-mandated Committee on Research Priorities
for Airborne Particulate Matter and the Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States. He has previously
served on five other NRC committees. Professor Hopke received his B.S. in Chemistry from Trinity College (Hartford)
and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from Princeton University. After a post-doctoral appointment at M.I.T.,
he spent four years as an assistant professor at the State University College at Fredonia, NY. Dr. Hopke then joined
the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and subsequently came to Clarkson in 1989 as the Robert A. Plane
Professor with a principal appointment in the Department of Chemistry. He has served as Dean of the Graduate School,
Chair of the Department of Chemistry, and Head of the Division of Chemical and Physical Sciences before he moved
his principal appointment to the Department of Chemical Engineering in 2000. In 2002, he was appointed to his current
positions at Clarkson.
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