Project at a Glance
Title: Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from agricultural soil fumigation.
Principal Investigator / Author(s): Yates, Scott R.
Contractor: UC Riverside
Contract Number: 05-351
Topic Areas: Agriculture, Monitoring, Stationary Sources
Field experiments were conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of the Telone® (1,3-dichloropropene,1,3-D alone or with chloropicrin) after shank injection into agricultural soil.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of several emission-reduction methods, including: sprinkler irrigation, organic amendment, deep injection, and fertilizer amendment on the volatilization of 1,3-D, alone or with chloropicrin, to the atmosphere.
Several methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses, including: aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, theoretical profile shape, and back-calculation methods. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere.
During the 2005 experiment, the volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days and the daily peak volatilization rates ranged from 18–60 µg m-2 s-1 (10–15% of applied Telone II) for the irrigated field and 4–23 µg m-2 s-1 1 (3–8% of applied Telone II) for the field amended with organic matter.
During the 2007 experiment, the volatilization rates ranged from 12–30 µg m-2 s-1 (11– 23% of applied Telone C-35) for the standard fumigation; 13–34 µg m-2 s-1 (10–17% of applied Telone C-35) for deep injection fumigation; and 7–20 µg m-2 s-1 (9–18% of applied Telone C-35) for a field amended with ammonium thiosulfate. For all fields, very low (i.e. < 2%) emissions of chloropicrin were observed.
Intermittent irrigation reduced total emissions by 45–70% and adding composted municipal green waste reduced total emissions by 80–85% compared to conventional fumigant applications. For deep injection and spraying the surface with ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) only a 20% reduction in emissions was observed.
Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed for the irrigation and organic matter treatments, but smaller reduction in emissions were observed for deep injection and ATS amendment in a surface spray (i.e., without surface irrigation).
For questions regarding research reports, contact: Heather Choi at (916) 322-3893
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