The Ozone Weekend Effect in California

This page last reviewed May 5, 2011


Weekend Effect (& Ozone Precursor Sensitivity) References

Almeida S.M., Piob C.A., Freitasa M.C., Reisa M.A., Trancosoc M.A., 2006. Source apportionment of atmospheric urban aerosol based on weekdays/weekend variability: evaluation of road re-suspended dust contribution. Atmospheric Environment 40, 2058–2067.

Altshuler S., Arcado T., Lawson D., 1995. Weekday vs. weekend ambient ozone concentrations: Discussion and hypotheses with focus on northern California. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 45, 967-972.

Austin J., Tran H., 1999. A characterization of the weekday-weekend behavior of ambient ozone concentrations in California. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Air Pollution, July 27-29, Palo Alto, CA.

Blanchard C.L., 1996. Application of the Smog Production (SP) Algorithm to Data Collected in the 1990 San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study.  Prepared for San Joaquin Valley Study Agency and California Air Resources Board, Sacramento CA.

Blanchard C.L., 1998. Analysis of Data From the 1995 NARSTO-Northeast Air Quality Study: Observation-Driven Methods for Delineating VOC and NOX Limitation. Prepared for Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta, GA, March 1998.

Blanchard C.L, Lurmann F.W., Roth P.M., Jeffries H.E., Korc M., 1999. The use of ambient data to corroborate analyses of ozone control strategies.  Atmospheric Environment 33, 369-381.

Blanchard C.L., Fairley D., 1999. Spatial Mapping of VOC And NOX-Limitation Of Ozone Formation In Central California. San Francisco (CA) Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

Blanchard C., Tanenbaum S., 2000. Data Analysis Complementing Proximate Modeling of Weekday versus Weekend Ozone. Prepared for the Coordinating Research Council, Alpharetta, GA.

Blanchard C., Roth P.M., Tanenbaum S., Ziman S.D., Seinfeld J.H., 2000.  The use of ambient measurements to identify which precursor species limit aerosol nitrate formation. Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 50, 174-185.

Blier W., Winer A.M., Hansen D., Verma N., 1996. Characterization of ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin: Effects of air parcel residence time and weekend/weekday differences. Final report to the California Air Resources Board, Contract No. 93-316, June 28. 

Blier W., Winer A.M., Hansen D., Chavira R., 1999. Analysis of weekday/weekend differences in ambient air quality and meteorology in the South Coast Air Basin.  Final report to the California Air Resources Board, Contract No. 95-334, June.

Borrell P., 2003. The complexities of ozone chemistry mean that policy makers are facing many challenges to improve air quality. Chemistry in Britain, May, 38-41.

Bronnimann S., Neu U., 1997. Weekend-weekday differences of near-surface ozone concentrations in Switzerland for different meteorological conditions. Atmospheric Environment 31, 1127-1135. 

California Air Resources Board, 1974. Weekday vs. Weekend Oxidant Concentrations, California Air Quality Data, July-August-September, Vol. VI, N3, 5-6.

California Air Resources Board, 1974. Weekday vs. Weekend Oxidant Concentrations II, California Air Quality Data, October-November-December, Vol. VI, N4, 10-11.

California Air Resources Board, 1978. Ozone Episode Experience in the South Coast Air Basin. California Air Quality Data, January-February-March, Vol. X, N1, 2-7.

California Air Resources Board, 1998. Proposed Regulations for Low-Emission Vehicles and Clean Fuels--Staff Report and Technical Support Document, Appendix I: Response to Environ International Corporation Report on Weekend-Weekday Differences in Ozone and Ozone Precursors in the South Coast Air Basin. October.

Chameides W.L., Fehsenfeld F., Rodgers M.O., Cardelino C., Martinez J., Parrish D., Lonneman W., Lawson D., Rassmussen R., Zimmerman P., Greenberg J., Middleton P., 1992. Ozone precursor relationships in the ambient atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 6037-6055.

Chameides W.L., Demerjian  K.L., et al., 2000. An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution - A North American Perspective.

Chock D., Pierson D., 1978. On the Weekday/Weekend Oxidant Differences in the California South Coast Air Basin. GMR Publication No. 2799, September.

Chock D., Pierson D., 1980. Response to: A statistically tested short term oxidant control strategy. Atmospheric Environment 14, 275-278.

Chock D.P., Chang T.Y., Winkler S.L., Nance B.I., 1999. The impact of an 8 h ozone air quality standard on ROG and NOX controls in Southern California. Atmospheric Environment 33, 2471-2485.

Cleveland W.S., Graedel T.E., Kleiner B., Warner J.L., 1974.  Sunday and workday variations in photochemical air pollutants in New Jersey and New York.  Science 186, 1037-1038.

Cleveland W.S., McRae J.E., 1978. Weekday-weekend ozone concentrations in the Northeast United States. Environmental Science and Technology 12, 558-562.

Darlington T., Kahlbaum D., 1998. Evaluation of recent NO2 and ozone levels in Southern California on weekdays and weekends using EPA AIRS data: Implications for the LEV II proposal. Report to Navistar. October 1.

de F. Forster P.M., Solomon S., 2003. Observations of a ‘‘weekend effect’’ in diurnal temperature range. PNAS September 30, V100 N20, 11225–11230.

Dolislager L.J., Motallebi N., 1999. Characterization of particulate matter in California. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 49, PM‑45‑56.

Dreher D.B., Harley R.A., 1998. A fuel-based inventory for heavy-duty diesel truck emissions. Journal of the Air Waste Management Association 48, 352-358.

Elkus B., Wilson K.R., 1977. Photochemical air pollution: Weekend-weekday differences. Atmospheric Environment 11, 509-515.

Environ International Corporation, 1998. Analysis of Weekend-Weekday Differences in Ozone and Ozone Precursors in the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin. Prepared for American Automobile Manufacturers Association.

Fujita E.M., Stockwell W., Keislar R.E., 2000. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Observations in the South Coast Air Basin: Phase I Retrospective Analysis of Ambient and Emissions Data and Refinement of Hypotheses.  Final report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, CO.

Fujita E.M., Campbell D.E., Stockwell W., Roberts P.T., Main H.H., Chinkin L.R., 2002. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Observations in the South Coast Air Basin Volume I – Executive Summary; Final report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO and the Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta, GA by the Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, and Sonoma Technology, Petaluma, CA, June.

Fujita E., Campbell D., Stockwell W., Keislar R.E., Zielinska B., Sagabiel, J.C., Goliff W., Keith M., Bowen J.L., 2002. Weekend/Weekday ozone observations in the South Coast Air Basin: Volume II – Analysis of air quality data. Final report prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (ACI-0-29086-01), Golden, CO.

Gao H.O., Niemeier D.A., 2007. The impact of rush hour traffic and mix on the ozone weekend effect in southern California. Transportation Research Part D 12 (2), 83-98.

Graedel T.E., Farrow L.A., Weber T.A., 1977. Photochemistry of the Sunday Effect. Environmental Science and Technology 11, 690-694.

Hemphill M.W., Sullivan D.W., 1997. Day of week contrasts for ozone, NOX, and CO.  Monitoring Operations Division, Office of Air Quality, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, June 11.

Hoggan M., Hsu M., Kahn M., Call T., 1989. Weekday/weekend differences in diurnal variation in carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone: Implications for control strategies. Paper 89-125.5, Air & Waste Management Association’s 82nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, June 25-30, Anaheim, CA.

Horie Y., Cassmassi J., Lai L., Gurtowski L., 1979. Weekend/weekday differences in oxidants and their precursors. EPA-450/4-79-013. March.

Husar R.B., 1998. Seasonal and weekly pattern of ozone over the OTAG region. Paper No. 98-MPB.06P, Air and Waste Management Association's 91st Annual Meeting & Exhibition, June 14-18, San Diego, CA. (http://capita.wustl.edu/CAPITA/Awma98/HTTP/98_A942.htm - Link Expired)

Karl T., 1978. Day of the week variations of photochemical pollutants in the St. Louis area. Atmospheric Environment 12, 1657-1667.

Kim, B.M., Teffera S., Zeldin M.D., 2000. Characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 in the South Coast Air Basin of Southern California: Part 2 – Temporal Variations, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 50, 2045-2059.

Lebron F., 1975. A Comparison of weekend-weekday ozone and hydrocarbon concentrations in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Atmospheric Environment 9, 861-863.

Levitt S.B., Chock D.P., 1975. Weekday-weekend pollutant and meteorological studies of the Los Angeles Basin, Paper #75-51.1, Proceedings of the 68th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Boston, MA, June 15-20.

Levitt S., Chock D., 1976. Weekday-weekend pollutant studies of the Los Angeles Basin. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 26, 1091-1092.

Liao Y., Yung Y., Sienfeld J.H., 1999. Effects of Aerosols on Tropospheric Photolysis Rates in Clear and Cloudy Atmospheres, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, No. D19, pp. 23,697-23,707.

Lonati G., Giugliano M., Cernuschi S., 2006. The role of traffic emissions from weekends’ and weekdays’ fine PM data in Milan. Atmospheric Environment 40, 5998–6011.

Lougha G.C., Schauer J.J., Lawson D.R., 2006. Day-of-week trends in carbonaceous aerosol composition in the urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4137–4149.

Lu C., Chang J.S., 1998. On the indicator-based approach to assess ozone sensitivities. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, No. D3, 3453–3462.

MacGregor L., Westberg H., 1990. The effect of NMOC and ozone aloft on modeled urban ozone production and control strategies. Journal of Air & Waste Management Association 40, 1372-1377.

Milford J.B., Russell A.G., McRae G.J., 1989. A new approach to photochemical pollution control: implications of spatial patterns in pollutant responses to reductions in nitrogen oxides and reactive organic gas emissions. Environmental Science and Technology 23, 1290-1301.

Milford J.B., Gao D.F., Sillman S., Blossey P., Russell A.G., 1994. Total reactive nitrogen (NOy) as an indicator of the sensitivity of ozone to reductions in hydrocarbons and NOx emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 99, 3533-3542.

Motallebi N., Tran H., Croes B.E., Larsen L.C., 2003. Day-of-Week Patterns of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Components at Selected Sites in California. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 53, 876-888.

Motallebi N., Croes B.E., Taylor C.A., Turkiewics K., 2003. Particulate Matter in California: Part 2 -- Spatial, Temporal, and Compositional Patterns of PM2.5, PM10-2.5, and PM10. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, December.

Murphy J.G., Day D.A., Cleary P.A., Wooldridge P.J., Millet D.B., Goldstein A.H., Cohen R.C., 2006. The weekend effect within and downwind of Sacramento: Part 1 - Observations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and VOC reactivity. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions, 6, 11427–11464.

Murphy J.G., Day D.A., Cleary P.A., Wooldridge P.J., Millet D.B., Goldstein A.H., Cohen R.C., 2006. The weekend effect within and downwind of Sacramento: Part 2 - Observational evidence for chemical and dynamical contributions. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions, 6, 11971–12019.

National Research Council (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.  

Pitts J.N., Winer A., Atkinson R., and Carter W., 1983. Comment on "Effect of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions on Ozone Levels in Metropolitan Regions", "Effect of NOX Emission Rates on Smog Formation in the California South Coast Air Basin", and "Effect of Hydrocarbon and NOX on Photochemical Smog Formation under Simulated Transport Conditions", Environmental Science & Technology 17, No. 1, 54-57.

Pont V., Fontan J., 2001. Comparison between weekend and weekday ozone concentrations in large cities in France. Atmospheric Environment 35, 1527-1535.

Pun B.K., Seigneur C., 2000. Data Analysis for a Better Understanding of the Weekday/Weekend Ozone and PM Differences. Report prepared for the Coordinating Research Council, Alpharetta, GA.

Qin Y., Tonnesen G.S., Wang Z., 2004. Weekend/weekday differences of ozone, NOX, Co, VOCs, PM10 and the light scatter during ozone season in southern California. Atmospheric Environment 38, 3069-3087.

Reiss R, 2006. Temporal trends and weekend–weekday differences for benzene and 1,3-butadiene in Houston, Texas. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4711–4724.

Roberts, P.T., Funk T., MacDonald C.P., Main H.H., Chinkin L.R., 2001. Weekday/weekend ozone observations in the South Coast Air Basin: Retrospective analysis of ambient and emissions data and refinement of study hypothesis.  Sonoma Technology Inc. STI-999670-1961-FR.

Sillman S., 1999. The relation between ozone, NOX, and hydrocarbons in urban and polluted rural environments. Atmospheric Environment 33, 1821-1845.

Sillman S., 2000. Comment on "The impact of an 8 h ozone air quality standard on ROG and NOX controls in Southern California". Atmospheric Environment 33, 3367-3369.

Stoeckenius T., Taylor A., Yarwood G., Lee K., 1998. Analysis of weekend-weekday differences in ozone and ozone precursors in the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin, Environ International Corporation, Final report prepared for American Automobile Manufacturers Association. July.

Tonnesen G.S., 1999. Effects of Uncertainty in the Reaction of the Hydroxyl Radical with Nitrogen Dioxide on Model Simulated Ozone Control Strategies. Atmospheric Environment33, 1587-1598.

Tonnesen G.S., Dennis R.L., 2000. Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOX.  Part 1: Local indicators of odd oxygen production sensitivity, Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 9213–9225.

Tonnesen G.S., Dennis R.L., 2000. Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOX.  Part 2: Long-lived species as indicators of ozone concentration sensitivity. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 9227–9241.

Tran H., Austin J., 1999. A Characterization of the Weekday-Weekend Behavior of Ambient Ozone Concentrations in California. In Air Pollution VII; WIT Press, Southampton, UK, 645-661.

Volz A., Kley D., 1988. Evaluation of the Montsouris series of ozone measurements in the nineteenth century. Nature 332, 240-242.

Vuilleumier L., 1999. Sensitivity Analysis of Weekday/Weekend Differences in Photochemical Air Pollution, 48th Meeting of Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF), Chevron / Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, March 10-11.

Vukovich F.M., 1997. PAMS data analysis: An investigation of local meteorological effects on ozone during the OTAG 1995 episode and the weekday/weekend differences in the Northeast Corridor, SAIC report to EPA OAQPS, September. (http://capita.wustl.edu/otag/reports/pamsinv2/pamsinv2.html - Link Expired)

Vukovich F.M., Jeffries H., Guinnup D., 1998. A Preliminary Study of the Weekday/Weekend Differences in Ozone and Its Precursors in Large Urban Regions and Their Implications toward Control Strategies. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA RTP, NC. 

Wang L., Milford J.B., 2001. Reliability of optimal control strategies for photochemical air pollution. Environmental Science & Technology 35, 1173-1180.

Winkler S.L., Chock D.P., 2000. Reply to comment on "The impact of an 8 h ozone air quality standard on ROG and NOX controls in Southern California". Atmospheric Environment 33, 3371-3372.

Winner D.A., Cass, G.R., Harley R.A., 1995. Effect of Alternative Boundary Conditions on Predicted Ozone Control Strategy Performance: A Case Study in the Los Angeles Area. Atmospheric Environment 29, 3451-3464.

Yarwood G., Morris R., Stoeckenius T., Heuss J., Heiken J., 2002. Proximate modeling of weekend ozone-results for several hypotheses and years. Final report prepared for Coordinating Research Council, Alpharetta, GA.

Yarwood G., Grant J., Koo B., Dunker A.M., 2007. Modeling Weekday/Weekend Emissions and Ozone in the Los Angeles Basin for 1997 and 2010. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Zeldin M.D., Horie Y., Mirabella V.A., 1989. An analysis of weekend/weekday differences in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Paper 89-125.6, Air & Waste Management Association’s 82nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, June 25-30, Anaheim, CA.

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