MOJAVE DESERT AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
RULE 2002 - GENERAL FEDERAL ACTIONS CONFORMITY
(Adopted: October 26, 1994)
(a) The purpose of this rule is to implement section 176(c) of the Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) § 176(c) (42 U.S.C. § 7506(c)) and regulations under 40 CFR 51, subpart W, with respect to the conformity of general Federal actions to the applicable implementation plan. This rule sets forth policy, criteria, and procedures for demonstrating and assuring conformity of such actions to the applicable implementation plan.
(a) No department, agency or instrumentality of the Federal Government shall engage in, support in any way or provide financial assistance for, license or permit, or approve any activity which does not conform to an applicable implementation plan.
(a) A Federal agency must make a conformity determination that a Federal action conforms to the applicable implementation plan in accordance with the requirements of this rule before the action is taken for any of the following Federal actions:
(i) For Federal actions related to transportation plans, programs, and projects developed, funded, or approved under title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) conformity determinations shall be made pursuant to the provisions of District Rule 2001.
(ii) For Federal actions where the total of direct and indirect emissions in a nonattainment or maintenance area caused by a Federal action would equal or exceed any of the rates listed below;
(A) For purposes of paragraph (2) of this section, the following rates apply in nonattainment areas (NAAs):
(VOC or NOx)
- Severe NAAs
- Extreme NAAs
- Other ozone NAAs outside an ozone transport region
- Marginal and moderate NAAs inside an ozone transport region
|- All NAAs||100|
|- Moderate NAAs
- Serious NAAs
|- All NAAs||25|
(B) For purposes of paragraph (2) of this section, the following rates apply in maintenance areas:
Ozone (NOx), SO2 or NO2)
(VOC or NOx)
|- All maintenance areas||100|
|- Maintenance areas inside an ozone transport region
- Maintenance areas outside an ozone transport region
|Carbon monoxide and PM10|
|- All maintenance areas||100|
|- All maintenance areas||25|
(iii) For Federal actions where the total of direct and indirect emissions of any pollutant from a Federal action does not equal or exceed the rates specified in section (A)(3)(ii), but represents ten percent (10%) or more of a nonattainment or maintenance area's total emissions of that pollutant, the action is defined as a regionally significant action and the requirements of (A) and (E) through (J) shall apply for the Federal action.
(iv) For Federal actions which are presumed to be de minimis pursuant to section (D)(1) or otherwise presumed to conform pursuant to (D)(4) of this section is a regionally significant action or where an action otherwise presumed to conform pursuant to section (D)(4) this section does not in fact meet one of the criteria in section (D)(5)(a) of this section, that action shall not be considered de minimis or presumed to conform and the requirements of (A) and (E) through (J) shall apply for the Federal action.
(v) The provisions of this rule shall apply in all nonattainment and maintenance areas within the jurisdiction of the MDAQMD.
(vi) Any measures used to affect or determine applicability of this rule, as determined under this section, must result in projects that are in fact de minimis, must result in such de minimis levels prior to the time the applicability determination is made, and must be State or Federally enforceable. Any measures that are intended to reduce air quality impacts for this purpose must be identified (including the identification and quantification of all emission reductions claimed) and the process for implementation (including any necessary funding of such measures and tracking of such emission reductions) and enforcement of such measures must be described, including an implementation schedule containing explicit timelines for implementation. Prior to a determination of applicability, the Federal agency making the determination must obtain written commitments from the appropriate persons or agencies to implement any measures which are identified as conditions for making such determinations. Such written commitment shall describe such mitigation measures and the nature of the commitment, in a manner consistent with the previous sentence. After this implementation plan revision is approved by EPA, enforceability through the applicable implementation plan of any measures necessary for a determination of applicability will apply to all persons who agree to reduce direct and indirect emissions associated with a Federal action for a conformity applicability determination.
(b) The conformity determinations required pursuant to section (A)(3)(a) above do not apply to the following Federal actions:
(i) Federal actions which are Exempt, determined to be di minimis, or presumed to conform to section (D) of this rule.
(ii) Federal actions where a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis was completed as evidenced by a final environmental assessment (EA), environmental impact statement (EIS), or finding of no significant impact (FONSI) that was prepared prior to January 31, 1994, or
(iii) Federal actions where all of the following has occurred;
(A) An EA was commenced or a contract was awarded to develop the specific environmental analysis prior to January 31, 1994.
(B) Sufficient environmental analysis is completed by March 15, 1994, so that the Federal
agency may determine that the Federal action is in conformity with the specific requirements and the purposes of
the applicable implementation plan pursuant to the agency's affirmative obligation under FCAA § 176(c)
(42 U.S.C. § 7506(c)), and
(C) A written determination of conformity under FCAA § 176(c) (42 U.S.C. § 7506(c)) has been made by the Federal agency responsible for the Federal action by March 15, 1994.
(a) Affected Federal Land Manager - The Federal agency or the Federal official charged with direct responsibility for management of an area designated as Class I under the FCAA (42 U.S.C. §7472) that is located within 100 km of the proposed Federal action.
(b) Applicable Implementation Plan - Is defined in FCAA § 302(q) (42 U.S.C. §7602(q)) and means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under FCAA § 110 (42 U.S.C. §7601(d)), or promulgated under FCAA § 110(c) (42 U.S.C. §7510(c)), or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under FCAA § 301(d) (42 U.S.C. §7601(d)) and which implements the relevant requirements of the FCAA.
(c) Areawide Air Quality Modeling Analysis - An assessment on a scale that includes the entire nonattainment or maintenance area which uses an air quality dispersion model to determine the effects of emissions on air quality.
(d) Cause or contribute to a new violation - A Federal action that:
(i) causes a new violation of a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) at a location in a nonattainment or maintenance area which would otherwise not be in violation of the standard during the future period in question if the Federal action were not taken, or
(ii) contributes, in conjunction with other reasonably foreseeable actions, to a new violation of a NAAQS at a location in a nonattainment or maintenance area in a manner that would increase the frequency or severity of the new violation.
(e) Caused by - As used in the terms "direct emissions" and "indirect emissions," means emissions that would not otherwise occur in the absence of the Federal action.
(f) Criteria pollutant or standard - Any pollutant for which there is established a NAAQS at 40 CFR 50.
(g) Direct emissions - Those emissions of a criteria pollutant or its precursors that are caused or initiated by the Federal action and occur at the same time and place as the action.
(h) Emergency - A situation where extremely quick action on the part of the Federal agencies involved is needed and where the timing of such Federal activities makes it impractical to meet the requirements of this rule, such as natural disasters like hurricanes or earthquakes, civil disturbances such as terrorist acts, and military mobilizations.
(i) Emissions budgets - Those portions of the applicable SIP's projected emissions inventories that describe the levels of emissions (mobile, stationary, area, etc.) that provide for meeting reasonable further progress milestones, attainment, and/or maintenance for any criteria pollutant or its precursors.
(j) Emission offsets - For purposes of (H) of this rule, are emissions reductions which are quantifiable, consistent with the applicable implementation plan attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations; surplus to reductions required by, and credited to, other applicable implementation plan provisions; enforceable under both State and Federal law; and permanent within the time frame specified by the program.
(k) Emissions that a Federal agency has a continuing program responsibility for means emissions that are specifically caused by an agency carrying out its authorities, and does not include emissions that occur due to subsequent activities, unless such activities are required by the Federal agency. Where an agency, in performing its normal program responsibilities, takes actions itself or imposes conditions that result in air pollutant emissions by a non-Federal entity taking subsequent actions, such emissions are covered by the meaning of a continuing program responsibility.
(l) FCAA - The Federal Clean Air Act codified at 42 U.S.C. §§7401-7671(q) as well as any amendments thereto.
(m) Federal action - Any activity engaged in by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal government, or any activity that a department, agency or instrumentality of the Federal government supports in any way, provides financial assistance for, licenses, permits, or approves, other than activities related to transportation plans, programs, and projects developed, funded, or approved under title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). Where the Federal action is a permit, license, or other approval for some aspect of a non-Federal undertaking, the relevant activity is the part, portion, or phase of the non-Federal undertaking that requires the Federal permit, license, or approval.
(n) Federal agency - For purposes of this rule, a Federal department, agency, or other instrumentality of the Federal government.
(o) Increase the frequency or severity of any existing violation of any standard in any area - To cause a nonattainment area to exceed a standard more often or to cause a violation at a greater concentration than previously existed and/or would otherwise exist during the future period in question, if the project were not implemented.
(p) Indirect emissions - Those emissions of a criteria pollutant or its precursors that:
(i) are caused by the Federal action, but may occur later in time and/or may be farther removed in distance from the action itself but are still reasonably foreseeable, and;
(ii) the Federal agency can practicably control and will maintain control over due to a continuing program responsibility of the Federal agency.
(q) Local air quality modeling analysis - An assessment of localized impacts on a scale smaller than the entire nonattainment or maintenance area, including, for example, congested roadway intersections and highways or transit terminals, which uses an air quality dispersion model to determine the effects of emissions on air quality.
(r) Maintenance area - An area with a maintenance plan approved under FCAA § 175A.
(s) Maintenance plan - A revision to the applicable implementation plan, meeting the requirements of FCAA § 175A.
(t) Metropolitan planning organization (MPO) - That organization designated as being responsible, together with the State, for conducting the continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive planning process under 23 U.S.C. §§ 134 and 49 U.S.C. §1607. The MPO for the MDAQMD is the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG).
(u) Milestone - The meaning given in FCAA §§ 182(g)(1) and 189(c)(1) of the CAA. A milestone consists of an emissions level and the date on which it is required to be achieved.
(v) National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) - Those standards established pursuant to FCAA § 109 (42 U.S.C. §7409) which include standards for carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, particulate matter (PM10), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
(w) NEPA - The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. §4321 et seq.).
(x) Nonattainment area (NAA) - An area designated as nonattainment under FCAA § 107 and described in 40 CFR part 81.
(y) Precursors of a criteria pollutant are:
(i) For ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), unless an area is exempted from NOx requirements under FCAA § 182(f) and volatile organic compounds (VOC); and
(ii) For PM10, those pollutants described in the PM10 nonattainment area applicable SIP as significant contributors to the PM10 levels.
(z) Reasonably foreseeable emissions - are projected future indirect emissions that are identified at the time the conformity determination is made; the location of such emissions is known and the emissions are quantifiable, as described and documented by the Federal agency based on its own information and after reviewing any information presented to the Federal agency.
(aa) Regionally significant action - A Federal action for which the direct and indirect emissions of any pollutant represent ten percent (10%) or more of a nonattainment or maintenance area's emissions inventory for that pollutant.
(bb) Regional water or wastewater projects - Include construction, operation, and maintenance of water or wastewater conveyances, water or wastewater treatment facilities, and water storage reservoirs which affect a large portion of a nonattainment or maintenance area.
(cc) Total of direct and indirect emissions - The sum of direct and indirect emissions increases and decreases caused by the Federal action; i.e., the "net" emissions considering all direct and indirect emissions. The portion of emissions which are exempt or presumed to conform under (D)(1),(2),(3) or (4) are not included in the "total of direct and indirect emissions". The "total of direct and indirect emissions" includes emissions of criteria pollutants and emissions of precursors of criteria pollutants. [40 CFR 51.852 - Total of direct and indirect emissions]
(dd) USEPA - The United States Environmental Protection Agency, the administrator or his/her designee. [40 CFR 51.852 - EPA]
(C) Requirements [40 CFR 51.854]
(a) In making its conformity determination, a Federal agency must consider comments from any interested parties.
(b) Where multiple Federal agencies have jurisdiction for various aspects of a project, a Federal agency may choose to adopt the analysis of another Federal agency (to the extent the proposed action and impacts analyzed are the same as the project for which a conformity determination is required) or develop its own analysis in order to make its conformity determination.
(D) Exemptions, De Minimis Activities and Activities Presumed to Conform
(a) Actions where the total of direct and indirect emissions are below the emissions levels specified in section (A)(3)(a)(ii).
(b) The following actions which would result in no emissions increase or an increase in emissions that is clearly de minimis:
(i) Judicial and legislative proceedings.
(ii) Continuing and recurring activities such as permit renewals where activities conducted will be similar in scope and operation to activities currently being conducted.
(iii) Rulemaking and policy development and issuance.
(iv) Routine maintenance and repair activities, including repair and maintenance of administrative sites, roads, trails, and facilities.
(v) Civil and criminal enforcement activities, such as investigations, audits, inspections, examinations, prosecutions, and the training of law enforcement personnel.
(vi) Administrative actions such as personnel actions, organizational changes, debt management or collection, cash management, internal agency audits, program budget proposals, and matters relating to the administration and collection of taxes, duties and fees.
(vii) The routine, recurring transportation of material and personnel.
(viii) Routine movement of mobile assets, such as ships and aircraft, in home port reassignments and stations (when no new support facilities or personnel are required) to perform as operational groups or for repair or overhaul.
(ix) Maintenance dredging and debris disposal where no new depths are required, applicable permits are secured, and disposal will be at an approved disposal site.
(x) With respect to existing structures, properties, facilities and lands where future activities conducted will be similar in scope and operation to activities currently being conducted at the existing structures, properties, facilities, and lands, actions such as relocation of personnel, disposition of federally-owned existing structures, properties, facilities, and lands, rent subsidies, operation and maintenance cost subsidies, the exercise of receivership or conservatorship authority, assistance in purchasing structures, and the production of coins and currency.
(xi) The granting of leases, licenses such as for exports and trade, permits, and easements where activities conducted will be similar in scope and operation to activities currently being conducted.
(xii) Planning, studies, and provision of technical assistance.
(xiii) Routine operation of facilities, mobile assets and equipment.
(xiv) Transfers of ownership, interests, and titles in land, facilities, and real and personal properties, regardless of the form or method of the transfer.
(xv) The designation of empowerment zones, enterprise communities, or viticultural areas.
(xvi) Actions by any of the Federal banking agencies or the Federal Reserve Banks, including actions regarding charters, applications, notices, licenses, the supervision or examination of depository institutions or depository institution holding companies, access to the discount window, or the provision of financial services to banking organizations or to any department, agency or instrumentality of the United States.
(xvii) Actions by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any Federal Reserve Bank to effect monetary or exchange rate policy.
(xviii) Actions that implement a foreign affairs function of the United States.
(xix) Actions (or portions thereof) associated with transfers of land, facilities, title, and real properties through an enforceable contract or lease agreement where the delivery of the deed is required to occur promptly after a specific, reasonable condition is met, such as promptly after the land is certified as meeting the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and where the Federal agency does not retain continuing authority to control emissions associated with the lands, facilities, title, or real properties.
(xx) Transfers of real property, including land, facilities, and related personal property from a Federal entity to another Federal entity and assignments of real property, including land, facilities, and related personal property from a Federal entity to another Federal entity for subsequent deeding to eligible applicants.
(xxi) Actions by the Department of the Treasury to effect fiscal policy and to exercise the borrowing authority of the United States.
(c) The following actions where the emissions are not reasonably foreseeable, such as the following:
(i) Initial Outer Continental Shelf lease sales which are made on a broad scale and are followed by exploration and development plans on a project level.
(ii) Electric power marketing activities that involve the acquisition, sale and transmission of electric energy.
(d) Individual actions which implement a decision to conduct or carry out a program that has been found to conform to the applicable implementation plan, such as prescribed burning actions which are consistent with a land management plan that has been found to conform to the applicable implementation plan.
(a) The portion of an action that includes major new or modified stationary sources that require a permit under the new source review (NSR) program or the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program.
(b) Actions in response to emergencies or natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, etc., which are commenced on the order of hours or days after the emergency or disaster and, if applicable, which meet the requirements of section (D)(3).
(c) Research, investigations, studies, demonstrations, or training [other than those exempted pursuant to section (D)(1)(b)], where no environmental detriment is incurred or the particular action furthers air quality research, as determined by the State agency primarily responsible for the applicable implementation plan.
(d) Alteration and additions of existing structures as specifically required by new or existing applicable environmental legislation or environmental regulations (e.g., hush houses for aircraft engines and scrubbers for air emissions).
(e) Direct emissions from remedial and removal actions carried out under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and associated regulations to the extent such emissions either comply with the substantive requirements of the PSD/NSR permitting program or are exempted from other environmental regulation under the provisions of CERCLA and applicable regulations issued under CERCLA.
(a) The Federal agency taking the actions makes a written determination that, for a specified period not to exceed an additional 6 months, it is impractical to prepare the conformity analyses which would otherwise be required and the actions cannot be delayed due to overriding concerns for public health and welfare, national security interests and foreign policy commitments; or
(b) For actions which are to be taken after those actions covered by section (D)(3)(a) of this section, the Federal agency makes a new determination as provided in section (D)(3)(a) of this section.
(a) The Federal agency must clearly demonstrate using methods consistent with this rule that the total of direct and indirect emissions from the type of activities which would be presumed to conform would not:
(i) Cause or contribute to any new violation of any standard in any area;
(ii) Interfere with provisions in the applicable implementation plan for maintenance of any standard;
(iii) Increase the frequency or severity of any existing violation of any standard in any area; or
(iv) Delay timely attainment of any standard or any required interim emission reductions or other milestones in any area including, where applicable, emission levels specified in the applicable implementation plan for purposes of:
(b) The Federal agency must provide documentation that the total of direct and indirect emissions from such future actions would be below the emission rates for a conformity determination that are established in paragraph (2) of this section, based, for example, on similar actions taken over recent years.
(a) The Federal agency must identify through publication in the Federal Register its list of proposed activities that are presumed to conform and the analysis, assumptions, emissions factors, and criteria used as the basis for the presumptions;
(b) The Federal agency must notify the appropriate EPA Regional Office(s), State and local air quality agencies and, where applicable, the agency designated under section 174 of the Act and SCAG and provide at least 30 days for the public to comment on the list of proposed activities presumed to conform;
(c) The Federal agency must document its response to all the comments received and make the comments, response, and final list of activities available to the public upon request; and
(d) The Federal agency must publish the final list of such activities in the Federal Register.
(E) Reporting Requirements.
(F) Public Participation and Consultation.
(G) Frequency of Conformity Determinations.
(H) Criteria for Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions.
(a) For any criteria pollutant, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action are specifically identified and accounted for in the applicable implementation plan's attainment or maintenance demonstration;
(b) For ozone or nitrogen dioxide, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action are fully offset within the same nonattainment or maintenance area through a revision to the applicable implementation plan or a measure similarly enforceable under State and Federal law that effects emission reductions so that there is no net increase in emissions of that pollutant;
(c) For any criteria pollutant, except ozone and nitrogen dioxide, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action meet the requirements:
(i) specified in section (H)(2), based on areawide air quality modeling analysis and local air quality modeling analysis, or
(ii) specified in section (H)(1)(e) and, for local air quality modeling analysis, the requirement of section (H)(2);
(d) For CO or PM10,
(i) Where the MDAQMD determines that an areawide air quality modeling analysis is not needed, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action meet the requirements specified in section (H)(2) of this section, based on local air quality modeling analysis, or
(ii) Where the MDAQMD determines that an areawide air quality modeling analysis is appropriate and that a local air quality modeling analysis is not needed, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action meet the requirements specified in section (H)(2), based on areawide modeling, or meet the requirements of section (H)(1)(e) of this section; or
(e) For ozone or nitrogen dioxide, and for purposes of sections (H)(1)(c)(ii) and (H)(1)(d)(ii), each portion of the action or the action as a whole meets any of the following requirements:
(i) Where EPA has approved a revision to an area's attainment or maintenance demonstration after 1990 and the MDAQMD makes a determination as provided in subsection (A) below, or where the MDAQMD makes a commitment as provided in subsection (B).
(A). The total of direct and indirect emissions from the action (or portion thereof) is determined and documented by the MDAQMD to result in a level of emissions which, together with all other emissions in the nonattainment (or maintenance) area, would not exceed the emissions budgets specified in the applicable implementation plan.
(B). The total of direct and indirect emissions from the action (or portion thereof) is determined by the MDAQMD to result in a level of emissions which, together with all other emissions in the nonattainment (or maintenance) area, would exceed an emissions budget specified in the applicable implementation plan and the MDAQMD, who makes a written commitment to USEPA which includes the following:
C. Where a Federal agency made a conformity determination based on a MDAQMD commitment under section (H)(1)(e)(i)(B) of this paragraph, such a MDAQMD commitment is automatically deemed a call for an implementation plan revision by USEPA under FCAA § 110(k)(5) (42 U.S.C. §7410(k)(5)), effective on the date of the Federal conformity determination and requiring response within eighteen (18) months or any shorter time within which the MDAQMD commits to revise the applicable implementation plan;
(ii) The action (or portion thereof), as determined by the MPO, is specifically included in a current transportation plan and transportation improvement program which have been found to conform to the applicable implementation plan under District Rule 2001 or 40 CFR 93, subpart A;
(iii) The action (or portion thereof) fully offsets its emissions within the same nonattainment or maintenance area through a revision to the applicable implementation plan or an equally enforceable measure that effects emission reductions equal to or greater than the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action so that there is no net increase in emissions of that pollutant;
(iv) Where USEPA has not approved a revision to the relevant implementation plan attainment or maintenance demonstration since 1990, the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action for the future years do not increase emissions with respect to the baseline emissions, and:
(A). The baseline emissions reflect the historical activity levels that occurred in the geographic area affected by the proposed Federal action during:
(B). The baseline emissions are the total of direct and indirect emissions calculated for the future years using the historic activity levels and appropriate emission factors for the future years; or
(v) Where the action involves regional water or wastewater projects, such projects are sized to meet only the needs of population projections that are in the applicable implementation plan.
(a) Meet the requirements in (I) of this rule, and
(b) Show that the action does not:
(i) Cause or contribute to any new violation of any standard in any area; or
(ii) Increase the frequency or severity of any existing violation of any standard in any area.
(I) Procedures for Conformity Determinations of General Federal Actions.
(a) All planning assumptions must be derived from the estimates of current and future population, employment, travel, and congestion most recently developed by the MPO in consultation with MDAQMD. The conformity determination must also be based on the latest assumptions about current and future background concentrations and other Federal actions.
(b) Any revisions to these estimates used as part of the conformity determination, including projected shifts in geographic location or level of population, employment, travel, and congestion, must be approved by MDAQMD, the MPO or other agency authorized to make such estimates for the area.
(a) For motor vehicle emissions, the most current version of the motor vehicle emissions model specified by EPA for use in the preparation or revision of implementation plans in the State or area must be used for the conformity analysis as specified below:
(i) The EPA must publish in the Federal Register a notice of availability of any new motor vehicle emissions model; and
(ii) A grace period of three months shall apply during which the motor vehicle emissions model previously specified by EPA as the most current version may be used. Conformity analyses for which the analysis was begun during the grace period or no more than 3 years before the Federal Register notice of availability of the latest emission model may continue to use the previous version of the model specified by EPA, if a final determination as to conformity is made within 3 years of such analysis.
(b) For non-motor vehicle sources, including stationary and area source emissions, the latest emission factors specified by USEPA in the "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42)" must be used for the conformity analysis unless more accurate emission data are available, such as actual stack test data from stationary sources which are part of the conformity analysis.
(a) The guideline techniques are inappropriate, in which case the model may be modified or another model substituted on a case-by-case basis or, where appropriate, on a generic basis for a specific Federal agency program; and
(b) Written approval of the USEPA Regional Administrator is obtained for any modification or substitution.
(a) The FCAA mandated attainment year or, if applicable, the farthest year for which emissions are projected in the maintenance plan;
(b) The year during which the total of direct and indirect emissions from the action for each pollutant analyzed is expected to be the greatest on an annual basis; and
(c) Any year for which the applicable implementation plan specifies an emissions budget.
(J) Mitigation of Air Quality Impacts.