ANTELOPE VALLEY AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

RULE 701

Air Pollution Emergency Contingency Actions

(Adopted: 5/6/77; Amended: 6/2/78; Amended: 4/4/80; Amended: 7/9/82;
Amended: 9/8/95; Amended: 6/13/97; Amended: 1/20/98; Amended: 07/18/00)


(A) General

    (1) Purpose
      (a) The purpose of this rule is to:
        (i) define air pollution Episode criteria;
        (ii) provide for Episode notification to the public;
        (iii) recommend precautionary actions to be taken during Episodes; and
        (iv) prevent or reduce the severity of Episodes.

    (2) Applicability
      (a) This rule shall apply to all persons within the jurisdiction of Antelope Valley Air Pollution Control District (AVAPCD) and shall also specify the measures to be taken by AVAPCD during air pollution Episodes.

(B) Definitions
For the purpose of this rule, the following definitions apply:

    (1) "Air Contaminant or Air Pollutant" - any discharge, release, or other propagation into the atmosphere and includes, but is not limited to, smoke, charred paper, dust, soot, grime, carbon, fumes, gases, odors, particulate matter, acids or any combination thereof.

    (2) "Air Pollution Control Officer" (APCO) - the person appointed to the position of Air Pollution Control Officer of AVAPCD pursuant to the provisions of California Health & Safety Code §40750, and his or her designee.

    (3) "Air Quality Index" (AQI) - the uniform reporting system established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to make air pollution reports more easily understood by the public. The AQI simplifies information by converting units of air pollution measurement into a uniform scale from 0 to 500.

    (4) "Declared Episode" - exists whenever the APCO determines:
      (a) that any of the applicable Episode criteria levels specified in this rule have been attained or,

      (b) that it is likely that any of the applicable Episode criteria levels specified in this rule is imminent to be attained that day.

    (5) "Child Day Care Facility" - a State licensed child day care, pre-school, or after-school program.

    (6) "Electric Power Generating System" - all boiler and approved alternative resources owned or operated by, and approved alternative resources and replacement units under contract to sell power to, any one of the following: Southern California Edison, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, or any of their successors.

    (7) "Employee" - any person employed by a person(s), firm, business, educational institution, non-profit agency or corporation, government or other entity. The term exempts seasonal employees, temporary employees, volunteers, field personnel, field construction workers, and independent contractors.

    (8) "Episodes" - the intermediate levels between the National Ambient Air Quality Standard and the Level of Significant Harm for Air Pollutants at which some pollution abatement or health notification action must be taken. The applicable Episode criteria, by pollutant and averaging period established by the USEPA and the California Air Pollution Emergency Plan, are presented in Attachment 2.

    (9) Essential Public Service:
      (a) a sewage treatment facility which is publicly owned and operated consistent with an approved regional growth plan;

      (b) a prison;

      (c) police or fire fighting operations;

      (d) Schools, hospitals, or ambulance operations;

      (e) construction and operation of a landfill gas control or processing facility;

      (f) water delivery operations;

      (g) public or private utility operations responding to public emergencies or utility outages, excluding routine maintenance,

      (h) public transit; or

      (i) U.S. Postal Service Operations.

    (10) "Fleet Vehicles" - motor vehicles as defined by the Motor Vehicle Code Division 1, Section 415 of the State of California Vehicle Code and operated from one business address.

    (11) "Force Majeure Natural Gas Curtailment" - an interruption in natural gas service due to unforeseeable failure, malfunction, or natural disaster, not resulting from an intentional or negligent act or omission on the part of the owner or operator of a boiler, or a supply restriction resulting from California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) priority allocation system of CPUC Rule 23, such that the daily fuel needs of a boiler cannot be met with the natural gas available.

    (12) "News Media" - the written press, television, radio, and other mass media of communication such as on-line computer information services.

    (13) "Outdoor Activity Curtailment Actions" - measures, as presented in Attachment 1, to reduce outdoor activities by children during periods when air quality exceeds the Health Advisory Episode level for ozone or the Stage 1 Episode for all other pollutants for which episode criteria are defined.

    (14) "Predicted Episode" - exists whenever the APCO determines that it is likely that any of the episode levels specified in this Rule will be reached during the following day.

    (15) "School" - public and private educational institutions for children ranging from grades Kindergarten through 12.

    (16) "Upset of Production" - a situation in which the process throughput or production rate is reduced by more than 20 percent of normal daily operations as a direct result of reducing emissions in order to comply with this regulation for Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episodes.

    (17) "Volatile Organic Compound" (VOC) - Any compound of carbon which may participate in such atmospheric photochemical reactions and contribute to the formation of photochemical smog, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, ammonium carbonate and those exempt compounds listed in 40 CFR 51.100(s)(1).

    (18) "Wildland Vegetative Management Burning" - the use of prescribed burning conducted by a public agency, or through a cooperative agreement or contract involving a public agency, to burn land predominantly covered with chaparral, trees, grass or standing brush as defined by Title 17, California Administrative Code, Section 80100.

(C) Facility Requirements

    (1) The following actions are required for the owner or operator of any facility which has actual emissions of 91 metric tons (100 tons) or more per year of either VOCs, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), or oxides of sulfur (SOx), and are encouraged for all other emitters of these pollutants:
      (a) Upon notification of a predicted Stage 2 or Stage 3 episode either from the APCO or via the News Media, reduce combined emissions for VOCs, NOx, and SOx, by at least 20 percent of normal weekday operations.

      (b) Upon notification by the APCO of the declaration of an air pollution state of emergency by the Governor, take the applicable actions which the Governor requires.


    (2) The following actions are required for any facility having 100 or more Employees:
      (a) Upon notification of a predicted Stage 2 or 3 Episode either from the APCO or via the News Media, post at least one sign in a conspicuous place designating the Predicted Episode stage and requesting ridesharing and telecommuting.

      (b) Upon notification of a predicted Stage 2 or Stage 3 episode either from the APCO or via the News Media, reduce Fleet Vehicle miles traveled by at least 20 percent of normal week day operations.

      (c) Upon notification by the APCO of the declaration of an air pollution state of emergency by the Governor, take the applicable actions which the Governor requires.

    (3) All facilities subject to subsections (C)(1) or (C)(2) are encouraged to develop and maintain an internal plan to meet the specified requirements.

    (4) Upon a predicted Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episode, an owner or facility shall maintain a log of the actions taken to meet the requirements in (C)(1) or (C)(2).

    (5) Facilities required to implement Stage 2 or Stage 3 actions shall implement such actions by at least just after midnight (00:01 hours standard time) or upon commencement of normal business hours on the day for which an Episode is predicted.

    (6) Liquid or solid fossil fuel shall not be burned in Electric Power Generating Systems on predicted or declared Stage 2 or Stage 3 episode days of ozone, sulfur dioxide, sulfur dioxide plus ozone, or sulfates in combination with ozone unless a Force Majeure Natural Gas Curtailment is in effect.

(D) AVAPCD Requirements

    (1) Measurements
      (a) The APCO shall maintain air monitoring stations throughout AVAPCD so that air quality can be monitored on a continuous basis and air pollution Episodes can be measured and predicted. Air quality information will be reported daily using the AQI.

    (2) Episode Notifications by the APCO
      (a) The APCO shall notify the California Air Resources Board and the News Media (e.g. those media in each county determined to be most likely to result in widespread public knowledge) whenever an episode is predicted, declared, or terminated.

      (b) The APCO may notify directly or shall otherwise rely on the News Media to disseminate to the following whenever an episode is predicted, declared, or terminated:
        (i) School officials;
        (ii) Local and state law enforcement agencies;
        (iii) Public safety personnel who have responsibilities for or interest in air pollution control;
        (iv) All facilities or activities subject to paragraphs (C)(1) or (C)(2).

      (c) The APCO shall announce the prediction of an Episode not later than 2:00 pm (4:30 pm for sulfate portion of ozone/sulfate Episode) of the day before the Episode is predicted to occur.

      (d) A declared or Predicted Episode shall be terminated whenever the Air Contaminant which caused the Episode has been verified by the APCO to be below the applicable Episode criteria set forth for the calling of such Episode and the available scientific and meteorological data indicate that the concentration of such Air Contaminant will not likely increase again within the next hour so as to reach the previously attained Episode.

      (e) The notice of an Episode shall include the following:
        (i) Stage level and predicted duration.
        (ii) The affected source and receptor areas.
        (iii) Air Contaminants for which the episode is declared.
        (iv) The AQI value for the Air Pollutant with the highest predicted or actual AQI reading and associated health message.

    (3) Upon the declaration of any Predicted or attained Episode, the APCO shall take the following actions:
      (a) For Ozone Health Advisories Only:
        (i) Recommend as part of the notification required by subsection (D)(2) that Schools and Child Day Care Facilities take the actions specified in Attachment 1, paragraph (b);
        (ii) Recommend as part of the notification required by subsection (D)(2) to the public that individuals with special health problems follow the precautions recommended by their physicians or health officials;
        (iii) By means of a telephone recorded message, notify members of the public who contact the AVAPCD.
      (b) For Stage 1 Episodes:
        (i) Recommend as part of the notification required by subsection (D)(2) that Schools and Child Day Care Facilities take the actions specified in Attachment 1, paragraph (c);
        (ii) Take the actions specified in subsections (D)(3)(a)(ii) and (iii);
        (iii) Encourage the public to reduce unnecessary driving;
        (iv) Encourage the public to ride share;
        (v) Encourage employers to limit the amount of time their employees work outdoors to the degree practicable.
      (c) For Stage 2 and Stage 3 Episodes:
        (i) Recommend as part of the notification required by subsection (D)(2) that Schools and Child Day Care Facilities take the actions specified in Attachment 1, paragraph (d);
        (ii) Take the actions specified in subsections (D)(3)(b)(ii) through (v);
        (iii) Within the receptor area(s) of the Episode:
          a. Recommend the suspension of programs which involve the physical exertion by participants using public parks or public recreation facilities;
          b. Recommend that all non-emergency driving be discontinued as soon as possible.
        (iv) The APCO shall implement source inspections upon a Predicted Episode.

(E) Special Actions for Wildland Vegetative Management Burning

    (1) Upon declaration of any predicted Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episode, all Wildland Vegetative Management Burning is prohibited.

    (2) Upon the declaration of any attained Stage 2 or Stage 3 episode, all Wildland Vegetative Management Burning, if already ignited, shall be terminated.

(F) Interdistrict Coordination
Upon request of an air pollution control officer in an adjoining air basin for action to abate Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episodes occurring within that district, the APCO shall make a determination, and if the need for action is confirmed, direct the implementation of the actions required in this Rule for any significant source area identified within the District which contributes to the ongoing Episode in the adjoining district. Sources in that area shall comply as though an Episode has been declared in their area.

(G) Exemptions

    (1) Percentage emissions reductions or percentage reductions in vehicle miles traveled lower than those specified in section (C) shall be allowed by the APCO:

      (a) if the facility submits a letter to the APCO, not later than 30 days following a predicted Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episode, demonstrating at least one of the following conditions:
        (i) that meeting the stated percentage reductions jeopardizes public health or safety,
        (ii) that meeting the stated percentage reductions damages equipment or creates an Upset of Production, or

      (b) the facility or activity is an Essential Public Service.
    (2) Buses, commuter van pool vehicles or other vehicles, used exclusively for multi-passenger commuting between home and the place of work or School are excluded from the Fleet Vehicle reduction provisions of subsection (C)(2)(b).
    Programs that include adult participants in scheduled athletic events with paid attendance are exempted from subsection (D)(3)(c)(iii)a..

[SIP: Submitted as adopted _______ on ________; Approved 3/18/99, 64 FR 13351, 40 CFR 52.220(c)(256)(i)(D)(1); Approved 9/16/97, 62 FR 48483, 40 CFR 52.220(c)(229)(i)(A)(2); Approved 6/3/80, 45 FR 37428, 40 CFR 52.220(c)(39)(iii)(E); Approved ________, ________, 40 CFR 52.220(c)(38)(i)]




ATTACHMENT 1
OUTDOOR ACTIVITY CURTAILMENT ACTIONS


State and federal guidance identifies the following actions that Schools and Child Day Care Facilities can take to curtail outdoor activities to reduce or minimize children's exposure to air pollution:

(a) For periods of unhealthful air quality (exceeding the federal clean air standards):

(1) Susceptible individuals, e.g. children with heart or lung disease:
Minimize outdoor activity.
(2) Healthy individuals with a noticeable adverse health response to existing conditions:
Minimize outdoor activity.


(b) For Health Advisory Episodes (applies only to ozone):

(1) All children:
Discontinue prolonged, vigorous outdoor exercise lasting longer than one hour.
(2) Susceptible persons, such as those with heart or lung disease:
Avoid outdoor activity.
(3) Examples of the kinds of outdoor activities that should be avoided are calisthenics, basketball, running, soccer, football, tennis, swimming laps, water polo.


(c) For Stage 1 Episodes:

(1) All children:
Discontinue all vigorous outdoor activities regardless of duration.
(2) Outdoor physical education (PE) classes, sports practices, and athletic competitions should be re-scheduled or canceled if practicable.


(d) For Stage 2 or Stage 3 Episodes:

(1) All children:
Discontinue all outdoor activities.



ATTACHMENT 2
EPISODE CRITERIA


For the purpose of Rule 701, the following episode criteria shall apply:



Air Contaminant

Averaging Time

Health Advisory

Stage
1

Stage
2

Stage
3

Ozone 

 1 Hour

 0.15 ppm

 0.20 ppm

 0.35 ppm

 0.50 ppm

Ozone, In Combination with Sulfur Dioxide

 1 Hour

 

 0.20 ppm*

 0.35 ppm*

 0.50 ppm*

Carbon Monoxide 

 1 Hour

 

 40 ppm

  75 ppm

 100 ppm**

 

 8 Hours***

 

 15 ppm

 30 ppm

  40 ppm

Sulfur Dioxide 

 1 Hour

 

 0.5 ppm

  1.0 ppm

  2.0 ppm

 

 24 Hours***

 

 0.2 ppm

 0.6 ppm

 0.8 ppm

Sulfate, in Combination with Ozone 

 24 Hours*** (Sulfate)

 

 

 25 µg/m3

 

 

 1 Hour (Ozone)

 

 

 0.20 ppm

 

Nitrogen Dioxide 

 1 Hour

 

 0.6 ppm

 1.2 ppm

 1.6 ppm

 

 24 Hours***

 

 0.15 ppm

 0.3 ppm

 0.4 ppm

 Fine Particulate Matter (PM10)

 24 Hours***

 

 350 µg/m3

  420 µg/m3

 500 µg/m3

* These levels shall apply when the ozone concentration and the sulfur dioxide concentration each exceeds 0.10 ppm, one-hour average, and shall be determined by adding the ozone and sulfur dioxide concentration.
** For one hour and predicted to persist for one additional clock hour.
*** Averaging time is based on a running clock hourly average.