KERAPCD RULE 410-3 ORGANIC SOLVENT DEGREASING OPERATIONS
LAST REVISED 03/07/96

RULE 410.3 - Organic Solvent Degreasing Operations - Adopted 6/26/79, Amended 11/27/79, 6/29/81, 5/6/91, 3/7/96

I. Applicability

The requirements of this Rule shall apply to all organic solvent degreasing operations.

II. Definitions

A. Cold Cleaner: any batch loaded, non-boiling solvent degreaser.

B. Condenser Equipment: any equipment, such as refrigerated or non-refrigerated freeboard chillers, condenser coils, or water jackets, used to condense solvent vapor in a vapor degreaser.

C. Condenser Flow Switch: a safety switch which shuts off sump heat if condenser water fails to circulate or if condenser water temperature rises above the designated operating temperature.

D. Conveyorized Degreaser: any continuously loaded, conveyorized solvent degreaser, either boiling or non-boiling.

E. Degreaser: a tank, tray, drum, or other container in which objects to be cleaned are exposed to a degreasing solvent or degreasing solvent vapor.

F. Freeboard Height:

  1. For cold cleaning degreaser, is the distance from the top of the solvent or solvent drain to the top of the degreaser, based on inside tank dimensions.

  2. For remote reservoir degreaser, is the distance from the solvent drain to the top of the degreaser, based on inside dimensions.

  3. For vapor degreasing tanks, is the distance from the solvent air-vapor interface to the top of the basic degreaser tank, based on inside tank dimensions.

G. Freeboard Ratio: the freeboard height divided by the smaller of the length or the width of the degreaser.

H. High Volatility Solvent: any solvent that is not a low volatility solvent.

I. Low Volatility Solvent: any solvent with an initial boiling point greater than 120°C (248°F) and with a temperature, as used, at least 100°C (180°F) below the initial boiling point.

J. Make-Up Solvent: that solvent which is added to a degreaser operation to replace solvent lost through evaporation, carryout, splashing, leakage, or disposal.

K. Open-Top Vapor Degreaser: any batch loaded, boiling solvent degreaser.

L. Remote Reservoir: a liquid solvent tank which is completely enclosed except for a solvent return opening no larger than 100 cm2 (15 in2) which allows used solvent to drain into it from a separate solvent sink or work area and which is not accessible for soaking parts.

M. Solvent: any liquid containing an organic compound or combination of organic compounds, which are used as diluents, thinners, dissolvers, viscosity reducers, cleaning agents, or for other similar uses. These liquids are principally derived from petroleum and include petroleum distillates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorofluorcarbons, ketones, and alcohols. Solutions, emulsions, and dispersions of water and soap, or water and detergent, are not organic solvents. Soaps and detergents are water based surfactants.

N. Spray Safety Switch: a safety switch which cuts off the pump of the spray applicator if the vapor level drops below a specified level.

O. Vapor Level Control Thermostat: a safety switch which turns off the sump heater if the thermostat senses the temperature rising above the designed operating level at the center of the air-vapor interface.

P. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): any compound containing at least one atom of carbon except for compounds exempted by Rule 102, Subsection L.

Q. Ultrasonic: the enhancement of the cleaning process by vibrating the solvent with high frequency sound waves, causing implosion of microscopic vapor cavities within the liquid solvent.

R. Wipe Cleaning: a method of cleaning which utilizes a cloth, cotton swab or other material, wetted with a solvent, which is physically rubbed on the surface to be degreased.

III. Exemptions

A. The provisions of this Rule do not apply to wipe cleaning.

B. The provisions of this Rule shall not apply to single pieces of degreasing equipment, which use unheated solvent, and which have liquid surface area of less than 929 cm2 (1.0 ft2), unless the aggregate liquid surface area of all degreasers at a stationary source as defined in Rule 210.1 "New and Modified Source Review", covered by this exemption is greater than 0.93 m2 (10 ft2).

IV. Requirements

A. Cold Cleaner Requirements: any person who operates a cold cleaner (degreaser) device shall conform to the following operating requirements:

  1. General Operating Requirements

  2. a. The degreaser equipment and emission control equipment shall be operated and maintained in proper working order.

    b. Repair solvent leaks immediately, or shut down and drain the degreaser.

    c. Do not remove or open any device designed to cover the solvent unless processing work in the degreaser or performing maintenance on the degreaser.

    d. If a solvent flow is utilized, use only a continuous fluid stream (not a fine, atomized, or shower type spray) at a pressure which does not cause liquid solvent to splash outside of the solvent container.

    e. porous or absorbent materials such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope shall not be degreased.

    f. Do not store or dispose of any solvent, including waste solvent and solvent residues, in such a manner as will cause or allow its evaporation into the atmosphere.

    g. Waste solvent and waste solvent residues shall be managed in compliance with California and Federal requirements applicable to solid wastes, hazardous wastes, or recyclable materials.

    h. Solvent agitation, where necessary, shall be achieved only by pump circulation, or by means of a mixer, or with ultrasonics. Air agitation shall not be used.

    i. Drain cleaned parts for at least 15 seconds after cleaning or until dripping ceases.

    j. Solvent spraying shall be done at least 4 inches below the top of the vapor layer.

  3. Cold Cleaners, except remote reservoir cold cleaners shall be equipped with the following:

  4. a. A freeboard such that the freeboard ratio is greater than or equal to 0.75;

    b. A container (degreaser) for the solvent and the articles being cleaned;

    c. An apparatus or cover which prevents the solvent from evaporating when not processing work in the degreaser. The cover must be designed so that it can be opened and closed easily with one hand;

    d. A facility for draining cleaned parts such that the drained solvent is returned to the container;

    e. If a high volatility solvent is used, then the drainage facility must be internal, so that parts are enclosed under the cover while draining. The drainage facility may be external for applications where an internal type cannot fit into the cleaning system;

    f. A permanent, conspicuous label which lists each of the operating requirements in Subsection IV.A.1.;

    g. A permanent conspicuous mark locating the maximum allowable solvent level which conforms with the applicable freeboard requirement in Subsection IV.A.2.a.

  5. Cold Cleaners, except remote reservoir cold cleaners, shall not operate without one of the following control devices:

  6. a. If a high volatility solvent is used, then one of the following control devices shall be used:

    1. A water cover if the solvent is insoluble in and heavier than water; or

    2. Any other system of control demonstrated to have emission control efficiency equivalent to 85% overall control.

    b. If low volatility solvent is used, the freeboard height shall be at least six (6) inches.

  7. Remote reservoir cold cleaners shall be equipped with the following:

  8. a. A cover for the drain when no work is being processed in the degreaser and high volatility solvent is used. If low volatility solvent is used, a drain cover is not required.

    b. A freeboard height of at least six (6) inches.

    c. A sink-like work area which is sloped sufficiently towards the drain to preclude pooling of solvent.

    d. Workplace fans shall not be used in a manner which disturbs the air-vapor interface.

    e. A permanent, conspicuous label or sign summarizing the applicable operating requirements in Subsection IV.A.1.

    f. A permanent conspicuous mark locating the maximum allowable solvent level which conforms with the applicable freeboard requirement in Subsection IV.A.4.a.

B. Open-Top Vapor Degreasers: Any person who operates a open-top vapor degreaser shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. General Operating Requirements:

  2. a. The degreaser equipment and emission control equipment shall be operated and maintained in proper working order.

    b. Repair solvent leaks immediately, or shut down and drain the degreaser.

    c. Do not remove or open any device designed to cover the solvent unless processing work in the degreaser or performing maintenance on the degreaser.

    d. If solvent flow is utilized, use only a continuous fluid stream (not a fine, atomized, or shower type spray) as a pressure which does not cause liquid solvent to splash outside of the solvent container.

    e. Porous or absorbent materials such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope shall not be degreased.

    f. Do not store or dispose of any solvent, including waste solvent and solvent residues, in such a manner as will cause or allow its evaporation into the atmosphere.

    g. Waste solvent and waste solvent residues shall be managed in compliance with California and Federal requirements applicable to solid wastes, hazardous wastes, or recyclable materials.

    h. Solvent agitation, where necessary, shall be achieved only by pump circulation, or by means of a mixer, or with ultrasonics. Air agitation shall not be used.

    i. Work loads shall not occupy more than half of the degreaser's open top area.

    j. Solvent spraying shall be done at least 4 inches below the top of the vapor layer.

    k. Water shall not be visually detectable in the solvent returning from the water separator to the solvent cleaner.

    l. For open-top vapor degreasers equipped with a lip exhaust, the exhaust shall be turned off when the degreaser is covered.

    m. Minimize solvent carry-out by the following measures:

    1. Rack parts to allow complete drainage.
    2. Move parts in and out of the degreaser at less than 3.3 m/min (2.2 inches/sec).
    3. Degrease the work load in the vapor zone until condensation ceases.
    4. Allow parts to dry within the degreaser until visually dry.
    5. Tip out any pools of solvent on the cleaned parts before removal.

    n. If the unit is equipped with a refrigerated freeboard chiller and/or a primary condenser, the following procedures shall be followed:

    1. When starting up the degreaser, the cooling system shall be turned on before, or simultaneously with, the sump heater.
    2. When shutting down the degreaser, the sump heater shall be turned off before, or simultaneously with, the cooling system.

    o. Exhaust ventilation should not exceed 20 m3/min per m2 (65 cfm/ft2) of degreaser open area, unless necessary to meet OSHA requirements. Ventilation fans shall not be positioned in such a way to disturb the vapor zone.

  3. Open-Top Vapor Degreasers shall be equipped with all of the following:

  4. a. A container (degreaser) for the solvent and the articles being cleaned.

    b. A freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 0.75.

    c. An apparatus or cover, which prevents solvent from evaporating when not processing work in the degreaser. The cover shall be designed such that it can be opened and closed easily without disturbing the vapor zone.

    d. A facility for draining cleaned parts such that the drained solvent is returned to the container.

    e. A permanent, conspicuous label which lists each of the operating requirements in Subsection IV.B.1.

  5. Open-Top Vapor Degreasers shall not operate without one of the following or a combination of the following major control devices:

  6. a. Condenser equipment where the chilled air blanket temperature measured in degrees F at the coldest point on the vertical axis in the center of the solvent cleaner shall be either no greater than 30% of the initial boiling point, measured in degrees F, of the solvent used, or 41°F.

    b. Enclosed design (cover or door opens only when the dry part is actually entering or exiting the degreaser).

    c. A carbon adsorption system which ventilates the air-vapor interface at a minimum rate of 15 m3/min per m2 (50 cfm/ft2), but not greater than 20 m3/min per m2 (65 cfm/ft2), unless required by OSHA standards, and exhausts less than 25 ppm of solvent by volume over a complete adsorption cycle, and with an overall capture and control efficiency of 85%; or

    d. Any other system of emission control demonstrated to have an overall capture and control efficiency of at least 85%.

  7. Open-Top Vapor Degreaser shall include all of the following safety switches:

  8. a. A condenser flow switch with a solvent temperature indicator, except where non-water refrigerant is used; a device which shuts off the sump heat if either the condenser coolant stops circulating or becomes warmer than specified;

    b. A spray safety switch; and

    c. A manual reset vapor level thermostat with a solvent temperature indicator.

C. Conveyorized Solvent Degreaser: Any person who operates a conveyorized solvent degreaser shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. General Operating Requirements:

    a. The degreaser equipment and emission control equipment shall be operated and maintained in proper working order.

    b. Repair solvent leaks immediately, or shut down and drain the degreaser.

    c. If a solvent flow is utilized, use only a continuous fluid stream (not a fine, atomized, or shower type spray) as a pressure which does not cause liquid solvent to splash outside of the solvent container.

    d. Porous or absorbent materials such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope shall not be degreased.

    e. Do not store or dispose of any solvent, including waste solvent and solvent residues, in such a manner as will cause or allow its evaporation into the atmosphere.

    f. Waste solvent and waste solvent residues shall be managed in compliance with California and Federal requirements applicable to solid wastes, hazardous wastes, or recyclable materials.

    g. Solvent agitation, where necessary, shall be achieved only by pump circulation, or by means of a mixer, or with ultrasonics. Air agitation shall not be used.

    h. For conveyorized degreaser, minimize solvent carryout by the following measures:

    1. Rack parts to allow complete drainage; and

    2. Maintain vertical conveyor speed at less than 3.3 meters/min. (2.2 inches/sec).

    i. Exhaust ventilation should not exceed 20 m3/min per m2 (65 cfm/ft2) of degreaser opening, unless necessary to meet OSHA requirements. Ventilation fans shall not be positioned in such a way to disturb the vapor zone.

    j. A down-time cover shall be placed over entrances and exists of conveyorized degreasers immediately after the conveyor and exhaust are shutdown and removed just before they are started up.

  1. Conveyorized Degreasers shall be equipped with all of the following:

  2. a. A container (degreaser) for the solvent and the articles be cleaned.

    b. A freeboard ration greater than or equal to 0.75.

    c. An apparatus or cover, which prevents solvent from evaporating when not processing work in the degreaser. Covers shall be provided for closing off the entrance and exit during shutdown hours.

    d. A facility for draining cleaned parts such that the drained solvent is returned to the container.

    e. For degreasers with greater than 2 m2 air/vapor interface, a hood or enclosure with a delivery or ductwork to collect degreaser emissions, exhausting to a carbon adsorber or equivalent control device.

    f. A permanent, conspicuous label which lists each of the operating requirements in Section IV.C.1.

  3. Conveyorized Degreasers shall not operate without one of the following or a combination of the following major control devices:

  4. a. Condenser equipment where the chilled air blanket temperature measured in degrees F at the coldest point on the vertical axis in center of the center of the solvent cleaner shall be either no greater than 30% of the initial boiling point, measured in degrees F, of the solvent used, or 41°F.

    b. A carbon adsorption system which ventilates the air-vapor interface at a minimum rate of 15 m3/min per m2 (50 cfm/ft2), but not greater than 20 m3/min per m2 (65 cfm/ft2), unless required by OSHA standards, and exhausts less than 25 ppm of solvent by volume over a complete adsorption cycle, and with an overall capture and control efficiency of 85% by weight; or

    c. Any other system of emission control demonstrated to have an overall capture and control efficiency equivalent to 85%.

  5. Conveyorized Degreaser shall include both the following control devices:

  6. a. A drying tunnel or other means, such as a rotating basket, sufficient to prevent cleaned parts from carrying out solvent liquid or vapor; and

    b. Minimized Opening: entrances and exits should silhouette the work loads so that the average clearance between parts and the edge of the degrease opening is either less than 10 cm (4in.) or less than 10 percent of the width of the opening, which ever is less.

  7. Conveyorized Degreaser shall be equipped with all of the following safety switches:

  8. a. A condenser flow switch with a solvent temperature indicator, except where non-water refrigerant is used;

    b. A spray safety switch; and

    c. A manual reset vapor level thermostat with a solvent temperature indicator.

V. Administrative Requirements

A. Record Keeping:

  1. Any person subject to the requirements of this Rule shall have solvent manufacturer specification sheets available for review and shall maintain records which show on a quarterly basis, the following information for each degreaser:

    a. Type of degreaser.

    b. Type of solvent.

    c. The solvent initial boiling point.

    d. Volume of solvent used.

    e. Volume of make-up solvent added to degreaser.

  1. Each time waste solvent or waste solvent residues are removed from the facility, keep records confirming compliance with the acceptable disposal methods listed in Subsections IV.A.1.g, IV.B.1.g, or IV.C.1.f.

  2. Records shall be maintained for a minimum of two years and made available for inspection to the Control Officer upon request.

B. Test Methods:

The following test methods shall apply to this Rule.

  1. Initial boiling point of solvent shall be determined by ASTM 1078-78.

  2. Where add-on control equipment is utilized, collection efficiency shall be determined by the EPA document "Model Regulatory Language for Capture Efficiency Testing" dated 8/3/90.
  3. Analysis of halogenated exempt compounds shall be by ARB Method 432.

  4. Determination of Emissions: Emissions of VOC shall be measured by EPA Method 25, 25a, or 25b, as applicable, and analysis of halogenated exempt compounds shall be analyzed by ARB Method 422.

  5. Exhaust ventilation rates shall be measured by EPA Method 2, 2a, 2b, or 2c.

VI. Compliance Schedule

A. Any person who becomes subject to the requirements of this Rule through loss of exemption shall comply with the following increments of progress:

  1. By November 1, 1991, submit a complete application for an Authority to Construct, if needed, to achieve compliance with this Rule.

  2. By November 1, 1992, be in full compliance with the requirements of this Rule.

B. Any person subject to the requirements of this Rule prior to May 6, 1991, shall be in compliance with all applicable requirements before January 1, 1980.