KERAPCD RULE 410.7 GRAPHIC ARTS          
LAST REVISED 05/06/91
          
          
          RULE 410.7 Graphic Arts - Adopted 6/29/81, Renumbered 5/89,
                     Amended 5/6/91

          I.    Applicability

                This Rule is applicable to all graphic arts printing
                operations as defined in Section II. of this Rule.

          II.   Definitions

                A.  Coating:  The application of a uniform layer of material
                    across the entire width of a substrate.  Those machines
                    which have both coating and printing units should be
                    considered as performing a printing operation.

                B.  Control Device:  Equipment such as an incinerator or
                    adsorber, or cooler/condenser filtration used to prevent
                    air pollutants from being emitted into the atmosphere.

                C.  Converting Operation:  Coating, waxing, laminating,
                    extrusion coating, or printing, to fabricate base
                    materials which are then used to produce wraps, bags,
                    and other preformed packages.

                D.  Doctor Blade:  A steel blade used to scrape excess ink
                    from a printing plate or inking cylinder.

                E.  Dryer:  A hot air, high velocity system used to dry inks
                    on printed or coated substrate.

                F.  Flexible Packaging Industry:  Establishments that
                    convert materials consisting of light gauge papers,
                    plastic films, cellulosic films such as cellophane, 
                    thin gauge metal sheets such as aluminum foil or steel 
                    foil, and combinations thereof into a variety of product
                    packages.

                G.  Flexographic Printing:  The application of words,
                    designs or pictures to a substrate by means of a roll
                    printing technique in which the pattern is applied to 
                    an image carrier made of rubber or other elastomeric
                    materials.  As compared to gravure (intaglio) printing,
                    the image to be printed via flexography is raised above
                    the carrier surface, while in the gravure process the
                    image to be printed is sunk below the surface.

                H.  Fountain Solution:  Solution composed mainly of water,
                    gum arabic, and other additives which is applied to the
                    lithographic plate to maintain the hydrophilic
                    properties of the non-image areas.

                I.  Fugitive Emissions:  Emissions of VOC from any portion
                    of the printing, coating, or laminating operation other
                    than from the dryer.

                J.  Graphic Arts Industry:  Those operations employing
                    gravure, flexography, letterpress, lithography, screen,
                    or any coating of laminating process to produce
                    published products and packages.

                K.  Gravure Printing:  An intaglio printing operation in
                    which the ink is transferred from minute etched wells 
                    on a cylinder to the substrate which is supported by 
                    an impression roller with excess ink removed from the
                    cylinder by a doctor blade.

                L.  Intaglio Printing:  Printing done from a plate or
                    cylinder in which the image is sunk below (etched or
                    engraved into) the surface.

                M.  Letterpress Printing:  A method where the image area 
                    is raised relative to the non-image area and the ink 
                    is transferred to the paper directly from the image.

                N.  Line:  The minimum equipment which is required for the
                    application and/or drying of inks and/or curing of
                    ultraviolet coatings of inks, or coatings on a
                    substrate, including ink the and/or coating applicators
                    and drying systems, and associated ink and coating
                    agitation and delivery systems.

                O.  Non-Heatset Inks:  An ink which dries by oxidation and
                    is absorped into the substrate without use of heat from
                    dryers or ovens.

                P.  Nonporous Substrate:  Any substance other than paper 
                    or paperboard, including but not limited to foil,
                    polyethylene, polypropylene, cellophane, metallized
                    polyester, nylon, and polyethylene terephthalate
                    (mylar), but not including wood, metal, or ceramic
                    materials.

                Q.  Offset Lithographic Printing:  A plane-o-graphic method
                    in which the image and non-image areas are on the same
                    plane and the ink is offset from a plate to a rubber
                    blanket, and then from the blanket to the substrate.

                R.  Packaging Gravure:  Gravure printing on paper,
                    paperboard, foil, film, or other substrates which 
                    are to be used to produce containers or packages.

                S.  Porous Substrate:  Paper or paperboard.

                T.  Publication Gravure:  Gravure printing on paper which 
                    is subsequently formed into books, magazines, catalogs,
                    brochures, directories, newspaper supplements or other
                    types of printed material.

                U.  Screen Printing:  A commercial and industrial printing
                    technique where which involves passage of a printing
                    medium, such as ink, through a taut fabric to which a
                    refined form of stencil has been applied.  The stencil
                    openings determine the form and dimension of the
                    imprint.

                V.  Specialty Gravure Printing:  Printing that uses the
                    gravure process for production of wall and floor
                    covering, decorated household paper products such as
                    towels and tissues, cigarette filter tips, vinyl
                    upholstery, woodgrains, and a wide variety of other
                    products.

                W.  Web:  A continuous sheet of substrate.

                X.  Web Feed:  An automatic system which supplies 
                    substrates from a web.

                Y.  Volatile Organic Compound (VOC):  Any compound
                    containing at least one atom of carbon except 
                    for the following exempt compounds:

                           Methane,
                           Carbon Monoxide,
                           Carbon Dioxide,
                           Carbonic Acid,
                           Metallic Carbides or Carbonates,
                           Ammonium Carbonates,
                           Methylene Chloride,
                           Methyl Chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane),
                           CFC-113 (trichlorotrifluoroethane),
                           CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane),
                           CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane),
                           CFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane),
                           FC-23 (trifluoromethane),
                           CFC-114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane),
                           CFC-115 (chloropentafluoroethane),
                           HCFC-123 (dichlorotrifluoroethane),
                           HFC-134a (tetrafluoroethane),
                           HCFC-141b (dichlorofluoroethane), and
                           HCFC-142b (chlorodifluoroethane).

          III.  Exemptions

                The requirements of this Rule, except for Subsection V.A,
                shall not apply to any printing, coating, or laminating
                facility which emits less than 75 pounds per day of
                volatile organic compounds.  Once a facility exceeds this
                exemption threshold it shall become subject to the
                requirements of this Rule.

          IV.   Requirements

                A.  Any person operating a publication gravure printing 
                    line shall comply with one of the following:

                    1.  Use only low VOC inks and coatings as specified 
                        in Subsection IV.C; or

                    2.  Install and operate on the line, an emission control
                        system as defined in Subsection IV.D, with a control
                        device efficiency of 95 percent on a mass basis; or

                    3.  The VOC emissions from the line have been reduced 
                        by at least 85 percent overall on each day from the
                        baseline daily emissions, as determined by
                        Section VII.

                B.  Any person operating any graphic arts printing line for
                    packaging gravure, specialty gravure, screen printing,
                    flexographic printing, offset lithography, letterpress
                    printing or related coating or laminating process,
                    printing or coating on porous or non-porous substrate,
                    shall comply with one of the following:

                    1.  Use only low VOC inks, coatings, and adhesives as
                        specified in Subsection IV.C; or

                    2.  Install and operate on the line, an emission control
                        system as defined in Subsection IV.D, with a control
                        device efficiency of 95 percent on a mass basis; or

                    3.  The VOC emissions from the line have been reduced 
                        by at least 75 percent overall on each day from
                        the baseline daily emissions, as determined by
                        Section VII.

                C.  Low VOC Ink, Coating, Adhesive, and Fountain Solution:

                    Any ink, coating or adhesive must satisfy
                    Subsection IV.C.1. in order to be deemed a low VOC ink,
                    coating, or adhesive for the purposes of this Rule.

                    1.  The ink, coating, or adhesive contains less than 
                        300 grams of VOC per liter (2.50 pounds VOC per 
                        gallon), as applied, excluding water and exempt 
                        compounds, provided that the total volatile content 
                        does not exceed that of other inks, coatings, or 
                        adhesives previously used by the operator for the 
                        same or equivalent products.

                    2.  Fountain solutions shall not contain more than 
                        15% VOC (by volume), as applied.

                D.  Emission Control System:

                    An emission control system is a system for reducing
                    emissions of VOC consisting of collection and control
                    devices which includes the following:

                    1.  A control device designed and operated to achieve
                        the efficiency specified in the applicable section
                        of this rule at all times during normal operation 
                        of the line being controlled; and

                    2.  A collection system, with a capture efficiency 
                        of at least 90%, which vents all dryer exhaust 
                        to the control device; and

                    3.  A collection system, with a capture efficiency 
                        of at least 90%, which has one or more inlets for
                        collection of fugitive emissions from each line.

                E.  Evaporative Loss Minimization:

                    1.  A person shall not use open containers for the
                        storage or disposal of cloth or paper impregnated
                        with volatile organic compounds that is used for
                        surface preparation or cleanup.

                    2.  A person shall not store spent or fresh volatile
                        organic compounds to be used for surface preparation
                        or cleanup in open containers.

          V.    Administrative Requirements

                A.  Record Keeping

                    Any person subject to the provisions of this Rule
                    (including exempt facilities) shall comply with the
                    following requirements:

                    1.  The facility operator shall maintain a current 
                        list of coatings, inks and solvents in use which 
                        contains all of the data necessary to evaluate 
                        compliance, including the following information, 
                        as applicable:

                        a.  Mix ratio of components used,

                        b.  VOC content and specific chemical constituents
                            of inks and coatings as applied,

                        c.  VOC content and specific chemical constituents
                            of solvents used for surface preparation and
                            cleanup.

                    2.  The permitted facility operator shall maintain
                        records on a daily and monthly basis to include 
                        the following information:

                        a.  Volume ink/solvent mix ratio,
  
                        b.  VOC content of ink and/or coating
                            (pounds/gallon),
     
                        c.  Volume of each coating or ink used (gallons),
                            and

                        d.  VOC content and quantity of cleanup solvent used
                            (gallons).

                    3.  The exempt facility operator shall maintain 
                        records on an extended basis provided the records
                        substantiate emissions are being maintained below 
                        75 pounds for the entire extended period and 
                        include the following information:

                        a.  VOC content of ink and/or coating
                            (pounds/gallon),
   
                        b.  Volume of each coating or ink used (gallons),
                            and

                        c.  VOC content and quantity of cleanup solvent 
                            used (gallons).

                    4.  All records shall be retained for a period of
                        2 years and shall be made available for inspection
                        by the Control Officer upon request.

                B.  Test Methods

                    1.  VOC content in samples of low VOC printing inks 
                        and coatings shall be determined by EPA Method 24 
                        or 24A as applicable.

                    2.  VOC content in samples of non-heatset printing inks
                        and coatings shall be determined by Bay Area Air
                        Quality District (BAAQMD) Manual of Procedures
                        Method 30.

                    3.  EPA Test Method 25 or ARB Test Method 100 shall
                        apply for VOC control efficiency compliance
                        determinations.

                    4.  ARB Test Method 432 shall apply for quantification
                        of halogenated compounds exempted by this Rule.

                    5.  Where add-on control equipment is utilized, and
                        capture efficiency needs to be determined,
                        collection efficiency shall be determined by the 
                        EPA document "Model Regulatory Language for Capture
                        Efficiency Testing" dated 8/3/90.

          VI.   Compliance Schedule

                A.  Any person subject to the requirements of this Rule 
                    due to revisions adopted May 6, 1991, shall submit a
                    compliance plan which designates the measures and
                    increments of progress that will be taken to achieve
                    compliance.  As a minimum, the compliance plan shall
                    include provisions for reducing the amounts of VOC 
                    used in all inks, coatings, and adhesives applied on 
                    the line, in accordance with the following schedule:

                    1.  By September 1, 1991 submit to the District a 
                        plan describing the methods used to comply with 
                        the applicable Rules.

                    2.  By January 1, 1992 submit a completed application
                        for Authority to Construct, if needed.

                    3.  Complete on site construction and achieve final
                        compliance by July 1, 1993.

                B.  Any person subject to the requirements of this rule
                    other than described in Subsection IV.A.1. by
                    January 1, 1987, shall be in full compliance with
                    the requirements of the Rule.

          VII.  Calculations

                The allowable emissions necessary to comply with the
                overall percent reduction, shall be calculated using as a
                baseline the average of the actual amount of solvent used
                for each line on a weight by solids basis for any two years
                selected from the calendar years 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981.
                The control plan required under this section shall identify
                which two of the four years have been selected, and the
                plan shall delineate the quantity of solvent used for each
                line for each of the two baseline years.

                Baseline daily emissions shall be the sum of VOC emissions
                during the baseline years divided by the number of
                operating days.