MBUAPCD RULE 400 VISIBLE EMISSIONS
LAST REVISED 04/26/95

RULE 400    VISIBLE EMISSIONS
(Adopted July 1, 1969; Revised April 26, 1995)


                                    CONTENTS 



PART 1  GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1
  1.1   Purpose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1
  1.2   Applicability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
  1.3   Exemptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
  1.4   Effective Dates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
  1.5   References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3

PART 2  DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
  2.1   Abrasives Certified for Permissible Dry Outdoor Blasting . . . .  4
  2.2   Opacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
  2.3   Ringelmann Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
  2.4   Teepee Burner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

PART 3  REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
  3.1   General Visible Emission Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
  3.2   Industry-Specific Visible Emission Limitations . . . . . . . . .  5

PART 4  ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
  4.1   Reserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
  4.2   Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6



PART 1  GENERAL


1.1   Purpose

      The purpose of this Rule is to provide limits for the visible
      emissions from sources within the District.



1.2   Applicability

      The provisions of this Rule shall apply to all sources of air
      pollutant emissions in the District.


1.3   Exemptions

      The provisions of this Rule shall not apply to the following
      activities:

  1.3.1   any open burning performed in compliance with Rule 407 {HSC
          Section 41704 (a), (b), and (c)};

  1.3.2   use of any aircraft to distribute seed, fertilizer,
          insecticides, or other agricultural aids over lands devoted
          to the growing of crops or raising of fowl or animals {HSC
          Section 41704 (d)};

  1.3.3   agricultural operations necessary for the growing of crops
          or raising of fowl or animals {HSC Section 41704 (g) and
          (h)};

  1.3.4   the use of visible emission generating equipment in training
          sessions conducted by governmental agencies necessary for
          certifying persons to evaluate visible emissions for
          compliance with applicable District rules and regulations
          {HSC Section 41704 (l)};

  1.3.5   emissions from vessels using steam boilers during emergency
          boiler shutdowns for safety reasons, safety and operational
          tests required by governmental agencies, and where
          maneuvering is required to avoid hazards {HSC Section
          41704 (j)};

  1.3.6   emissions from vessels during a breakdown condition, as long
          as the discharge is reported in accordance with District
          requirements {HSC Section 41704 (k)};

  1.3.7   smoke emissions from teepee burners during the disposal of
          forestry and agricultural residues or forestry and
          agricultural residues with supplementary fossil fuels when the
          emissions result from the startup or shutdown of the
          combustion process or from the malfunction of emission
          control equipment.  This exemption does not apply to emissions
          which exceed a period or periods of time aggregating more
          than 30 minutes in any 24 hour period, nor to emissions which
          result from the failure to operate and maintain in good
          working order any emission control equipment {HSC Section
          41704 (m)};

  1.3.8   smoke emissions from burners used to produce energy and
          fired by forestry and agricultural residues with
          supplementary fossil fuels when the emissions result from the
          startup or shutdown of the combustion process or from the
          malfunction of emission control equipment.  This exemption
          does not apply to emissions which exceed a period or periods
          of time aggregating more than 30 minutes in any 24 hour
          period, nor to emissions which result from the failure to
          operate and maintain in good working order any emission
          control equipment {HSC Section 41704 (n)};

  1.3.9   emissions from methanol fuel manufacturing plants which
          manufacture not more than 2,000,000 gallons of methanol fuel
          per day from wood, agricultural waste, natural gas, or
          coke (exclusive of petroleum coke).  As used in this
          Subsection, "manufacturing plant" includes all necessary
          support systems, including field operations equipment that
          provide feedstock.  However, this exemption shall be available
          to only one methanol fuel manufacturing plant in the District,
          and is effective only when the District is designated as an
          "attainment area" pursuant to the Federal Clean Air Act (42
          U.S.C. Sec. 7401 et seq.)  This exemption shall remain in
          effect with respect to a plant until five years after
          construction of the plant and shall have no force and effect
          with respect to the plant on and after that date {HSC Section
          41704 (o)};

  1.3.10    wet plumes where the presence of uncombined water is the
            only reason for the failure of an emission to meet the
            limitations of Section 3.1 of this Rule.  The burden of
            proof which establishes the application of this exemption
            shall be upon the person seeking to benefit from its
            provisions.



1.4   Effective Dates

      This Rule, as most recently revised on April 26, 1995 is effective
      on April 26, 1995. 


1.5   References

  1.5.1   The requirements of this Rule arise from the provisions of:
          California Health & Safety Code Sections 41701.5 and
          41704; Title 17 Section 92000 et seq. of the California
          Code of Regulations, and the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
          Part 60, Part 61, and Part 63.

  1.5.2   Other related rules include: Rule 407 (Open Outdoor Fires),
          Rule 423 (New Source Performance Standards), and Rule 424
          (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants).
          


PART 2  DEFINITIONS


2.1   Abrasives Certified for Permissible Dry Outdoor Blasting

      The abrasive blasting material defined in Title 17 of the
      California Code of Regulations Sections 92000 et seq..  


2.2   Opacity

      The degree to which light is prevented from passing through an
      emission plume.  Its measure is expressed as one (1.0) minus the
      optical transmittance of a smoke plume, screen target, etc. as
      determined by the test method in Section 4.2. below.  Dark plumes
      are expressed as numbers 1 through 5 on the Ringelmann chart,
      while light plumes are expressed as equivalent percentages.  Thus,
      Ringelmann 1 corresponds to 20% opacity, Ringelmann 2 corresponds
      to 40% opacity, Ringelmann 3 to 60% opacity, Ringelmann 4 to 80%
      opacity, and Ringelmann 5 corresponds to 100% opacity.   


2.3   Ringelmann Chart

      The chart used to designate shades of darkness of emissions as
      published by the United States Bureau of Mines.  


2.4   Teepee Burner

      A conical shaped device used to burn flammable forestry and
      agricultural product waste material in an enclosed fixture
      effective in preventing the spread of sparks or fire, situated in an
      area cleared of grass, grain, brush, slash, litter, and snags for
      a distance of 100 feet surrounding the device or by landfill or
      other methods which meet applicable state and local fire safety,
      air, and water quality standards.  A burn permit pursuant to Rule
      407 must be obtained for use of such device.  


PART 3  REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS


3.1   General Visible Emission Limitations

      A person shall not discharge into the atmosphere from any emission
      source  whatsoever any air contaminant for a period or periods
      aggregating more than three minutes in any one hour which is:

      3.1.1   as dark or darker in shade as that designated as No. 1 
              on the Ringelmann Chart, as published by the United States
              Bureau of Mines; or 

      3.1.2   of such opacity as to obscure an observer's view to a
              degree equal to or greater than does smoke described in
              Subsection 3.1.1 above. 

3.2   Industry-Specific Visible Emission Limitations

      3.2.1   Abrasive Blasting

              Notwithstanding the requirements of Subsection 3.1
              above, abrasive blasting operations shall not exceed
              visible emissions limits set by  Sections 92000 et seq. of
              Title 17 of the California Code of Regulations, which are
              20% opacity for indoor operations using non-certified
              abrasive blasting material and 40% opacity for more than
              3 minutes in any hour for outdoor operations using the
              following methods: wet abrasive blasting, hydroblasting,
              vaccuum blasting, or abrasives certified for
              permissible dry outdoor blasting.

      3.2.2   Pile Drivers

              Notwithstanding the requirements of Section 3.1, pile
              driver operations shall not exceed the visible emission
              limits set by Health and Safety Code Sections 41701.5,
              which are Ringlemann 1 for no more than 4 minutes per
              pile, or Ringelmann 2 for no more than 4 minutes per pile
              if operating on kerosene, smoke suppressing additives
              and synthetic lubricating oil.

      3.2.3   Federally Regulated Industries

              In addition to the general visible emission limits of
              Section 3.1 above, industries subject to any visible
              emission limit codified in 40 CFR Part 60, 40 CFR Part 61,
              or 40 CFR Part 63 shall comply with those limits.  For
              reference, District Rules 423 (New Source Performance
              Standards) and 424 (National Emission Standards for
              Hazardous Air Pollutants) include lists of the industry-
              specific standards which have been promulgated in 40 CFR
              Parts 60 and 61 respectively.



PART 4  ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS

4.1   Reserved

      

4.2   Test Methods

      Visible emissions shall be measured in accordance with EPA Method 9,
      codified as Appendix A of 40 CFR Part 60.
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