SACAQMD RULE 450 GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS          
LAST REVISED 02/23/93          

          SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN AQMD                RULES AND REGULATIONS
                                 RULE 450 GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS
                                         Adopted 7-23-81
                                        (Amended 2-23-93)

                                              INDEX


          100 GENERAL
              101  PURPOSE
              110  EXEMPTIONS

          200 DEFINITIONS
              201  COATING
              202  CONTROL DEVICE
              203  CONVERTING OPERATION
              204  DOCTOR BLADE
              205  DRYING OVEN
              206  FLEXIBLE PACKAGING INDUSTRY
              207  FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING
              208  FOUNTAIN SOLUTION
              209  GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS
              210  GRAVURE PRINTING
              211  INTAGLIO PRINTING
              212  LAMINATING OPERATIONS
              213  LETTERPRESS PRINTING
              214  LINE
              215  LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING
              216  NONHEATSET INK
              217  NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE
              218  OFFSET PRINTING
              219  PACKAGING GRAVURE PRINTING
              220  POROUS SUBSTRATE
              221  PRODUCTION UNIT
              222  PUBLICATION GRAVURE PRINTING
              223  SCREEN PRINTING
              224  SPECIALTY GRAVURE PRINTING
              225  VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC)
              226  WEB
              227  WEB-FEED

          300 STANDARDS
              301  POROUS AND NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE REQUIREMENTS
              302  LOW-VOC  INK,  COATING,  ADHESIVE, AND FOUNTAIN SOLUTION
                   REQUIREMENTS
              303  APPROVED EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
              304  SURFACE PREPARATION AND CLEANUP SOLVENTS

          400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
              401  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE, LITHOGRAPHIC (INCLUDING OFFSET) AND
                   LETTERPRESS PRINTING OPERATIONS
              402  OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN
              403  COMPLIANCE STATEMENT REQUIREMENT

          500 MONITORING AND RECORDS
              501  USAGE RECORDS
              502  TEST METHODS

          100 GENERAL

              101  PURPOSE:   To  limit the emission  of  volatile  organic
                   compounds from graphic arts operations.

              110  EXEMPTIONS:
                   110.1   This rule,  with  the  exception of Section 501,
                           shall  not  apply to any graphic  arts  facility
                           which emits less  than  660  pounds  of volatile
                           organic  compounds  per calendar month from  all
                           graphic  arts  operations,   including   surface
                           preparation  and cleanup solvents, and excluding
                           graphic  arts operations  addressed  in  Section
                           110.2.  Records required by Section 501 shall be
                           maintained  by  all  facilities  to  demonstrate
                           their exemption status.
                   110.2   This  rule,  with the exception of Section  501,
                           shall not apply  to graphic arts operations used
                           exclusively for research, laboratory analysis or
                           determination of product  quality and commercial
                           acceptance,  such  as  proof  presses  or  other
                           proofing  systems,  provided  that   total   VOC
                           emissions  from all such equipment do not exceed
                           300  pounds per  calendar  month  per  facility.
                           Records   required   by  Section  501  shall  be
                           maintained  by these facilities  to  demonstrate
                           their exemption status.
                   110.3   This  rule  shall   not   apply  to  publication
                           rotogravure   printing   operations,   effective
                           February 23, 1993.

          200 DEFINITIONS

              201  COATING:  The application of a uniform layer of material
                   across the entire width of a substrate.  Those  machines
                   which   have   both   coating  and  printing  units  are
                   considered to be performing a graphic arts operation.

              202  CONTROL DEVICE:  Equipment  such  as  an  incinerator or
                   adsorber  used  to prevent air pollutants from  reaching
                   the ambient air.

              203  CONVERTING  OPERATION:    Coating,  waxing,  laminating,
                   extrusion coating and printing,  for fabrication of base
                   materials. The base materials are  then  used to produce
                   wraps, bags, and other preformed packages.

              204  DOCTOR BLADE:  A steel blade used to scrape  excess  ink
                   from a printing plate.

              205  DRYING  OVEN:   An  oven  used  to hasten the process of
                   drying printed or coated material.

              206  FLEXIBLE   PACKAGING   INDUSTRY:   Establishments   that
                   convert  materials consisting  of  light  gauge  papers,
                   plastic films, cellulosic films such as cellophane, thin
                   gauge metal  sheets such as aluminum foil or steel foil,
                   and combinations  thereof  into  a  variety  of  product
                   packages.

              207  FLEXOGRAPHIC  PRINTING:   A  printing operation in which
                   words, designs, or pictures are  applied  to a substrate
                   by means of a roll printing technique in which  a raised
                   pattern is applied to an image carrier made of rubber or
                   other  elastomeric  materials mounted on a steel matting
                   cylinder.  The image  is  then printed directly from the
                   raised pattern to the substrate.

              208  FOUNTAIN SOLUTION:  The solution  applied  to  the image
                   plate  to  maintain  the  hydrophilic properties of  the
                   nonimage areas and to keep  the  nonimage area free from
                   ink.

              209  GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS:  Publication gravure, packaging
                   gravure, web-feed wallpaper screen  printing,  specialty
                   gravure, flexographic  printing operations, lithographic
                   printing operations, letterpress printing operations, or
                   any  coating  or  laminating operation that manufactures
                   flexible packaging  material for the packaging industry.
                   Coating operations which  are  performed  by  a  machine
                   having only coating units and no printing units are  not
                   graphic arts operations.

              210  GRAVURE  PRINTING:  An  intaglio  printing  operation in
                   which  the  ink is transferred from minute etched  wells
                   which comprise  the  image  on  a plate to the substrate
                   which is supported by an impression  roller, with excess
                   ink removed from the plate by a doctor blade.

              211  INTAGLIO  PRINTING:  A printing operation  done  from  a
                   plate in which  the image is etched or engraved into the
                   surface.

              212  LAMINATING OPERATIONS:   A  process  of composing two or
                   more layers of material to form a single  multiple-layer
                   sheet by using adhesive as the bonding agent.

              213  LETTERPRESS PRINTING:  A printing operation in which the
                   image area is raised relative to the nonimage  area  and
                   the  ink  is  transferred to the paper directly from the
                   image surface.

              214  LINE:  The minimum  equipment  which is required for the
                   application and/or curing of inks  and/or  coatings on a
                   substrate, including the ink and/or coating  applicators
                   and  heating  oven(s)  and  associated  ink  and coating
                   mixing equipment.

              215  LITHOGRAPHIC  PRINTING:   A printing operation in  which
                   the image and nonimage areas  exist  in  the same plane.
                   The nonimage area is treated chemically so that only the
                   image areas will be printed onto the substrate.

              216  NONHEATSET  INK:   An  ink  which  dries  primarily   by
                   oxidation  and absorption into the substrate without the
                   use of heat  from  dryers  or  ovens,  used primarily in
                   lithographic and letterpress printing.

              217  NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE:  Any substrate other  than paper or
                   paperboard,   including   but   not   limited  to  foil,
                   polyethylene,   polypropylene,  cellophane,   metallized
                   polyester, nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (mylar),
                   but not including wood, metal, or ceramic materials.

              218  OFFSET PRINTING:   A  lithographic printing operation in
                   which  the  image area is  transferred,  or  offset,  to
                   another surface, and then printed onto the substrate.

              219  PACKAGING  GRAVURE   PRINTING:    A   gravure   printing
                   operation  on  paper,  paperboard,  foil,  film or other
                   substrates which are to be used to produce containers or
                   packages.

              220  POROUS SUBSTRATE:  Paper or paperboard.

              221  PRODUCTION  UNIT:   A ream of paper, consisting  of  500
                   sheets of paper.

              222  PUBLICATION  GRAVURE  PRINTING:    A   gravure  printing
                   operation  on  paper which is subsequently  formed  into
                   books,  magazines,   catalogs,  brochures,  directories,
                   newspaper supplements or other publication material.

              223  SCREEN  PRINTING:  A printing  operation  in  which  the
                   printing ink passes through a refined form of stencil to
                   a web or  fabric.   The  stencil  openings determine the
                   form and dimension of the imprint.
              224  SPECIALTY   GRAVURE   PRINTING:    A  gravure   printing
                   operation  for  production of wall and  floor  covering,
                   decorated household  paper  products  such as towels and
                   tissues,  cigarette filter tips, vinyl upholstery,  gift
                   wrap, and woodgrains.

              225  VOLATILE  ORGANIC   COMPOUNDS  (VOC):   Compounds  which
                   contain at least one  atom  of  carbon,  except  for the
                   following   compounds   considered   exempt   from   the
                   definition of VOC, whose presence shall be determined in
                   accordance with Section 502:
                   225.1   methane
                   225.2   carbon dioxide
                   225.3   carbon monoxide
                   225.4   carbonic acid
                   225.5   metallic carbides or carbonates
                   225.6   ammonium carbonate
                   225.7   1,1,1-trichloroethane
                   225.8   methylene chloride
                   225.9   trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)
                   225.10  dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)
                   225.11  chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)
                   225.12  trifluoromethane (HFC-23)
                   225.13  trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113)
                   225.14  dichlorotetrafluoroethane (CFC-114)
                   225.15  chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115)
                   225.16  dichlorotrifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
                   225.17  2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
                   225.18  pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
                   225.19  1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
                   225.20  tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
                   225.21  dichlorofluoroethane (HCFC-141b)
                   225.22  chlorodifluoroethane (HCFC-142b)
                   225.23  1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
                   225.24  1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a).
                   225.25  The   following   classes   of   perfluorocarbon
                           compounds:
                           a.  Cyclic,   branched,  or  linear,  completely
                               fluorinated alkanes,
                           b.  Cyclic,  branched,   or  linear,  completely
                               fluorinated ethers, with no unsaturations,
                           c.  Cyclic,  branched,  or  linear,   completely
                               fluorinated    tertiary   amines   with   no
                               unsaturations.
                           d.  Sulfur-containing  perfluorocarbons  with no
                               unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only  to
                               carbon and fluorine.

              226  WEB:  A continuous sheet of substrate that is printed on
                   web-fed printing presses.

              227  WEB-FEED:  An automatic system on a printing press which
                   supplies a web substrate to the printing unit.

          300 STANDARDS

              301  POROUS AND NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE REQUIREMENTS:  Any person
                   operating  equipment  for  packaging  gravure  printing,
                   specialty gravure  printing, wall-paper screen printing,
                   flexographic    printing,     lithographic     printing,
                   letterpress   printing,   and  any  related  coating  or
                   laminating operations on porous or nonporous substrates,
                   including detergent packages,  shall  comply with one of
                   the following requirements:
                   301.1   Use only low-VOC inks, coatings,  adhesives, and
                           fountain solutions as specified in  Section  302
                           of this rule, or
                   301.2   Install  and  operate  on  the line, an approved
                           emission control system pursuant to Section 303,
                           with a control device efficiency  of at least 95
                           percent   on   a  mass  basis  and  an  emission
                           collection efficiency  of at least 70% on a mass
                           basis, or
                   301.3   Emissions per production  unit  shall be reduced
                           on  a  daily  basis by at least 75 percent  from
                           daily baseline emissions averaged from the years
                           1978 and 1979.   The following equation shall be
                           used to calculate  daily pounds of emissions per
                           production unit:

                                                (Vm)(VOC)
                                                ---------   
                                                   NOU

                               Where:   Vm    =  volume  of  material,  as-
                                        applied, per day.
                                        
                                        VOC  = the VOC content, as-applied,
                                        less           water            and
                                        compounds     exempt    from    the
                                        definition      of     VOC,      in
                                        grams of VOC per liter of material,
                                        or  pounds  of VOC              per
                                        gallon of material.
                                        
                                        NOU = number  of  production  units
                                        per day.

                           VOC  content  shall  be  determined as stated in
                           Section 302.  Daily records  shall  be  kept  in
                           accordance  with  Section  501.  This compliance
                           option will terminate on January 1, 1994.

              302  LOW-V0C  INK, COATING, ADHESIVE, AND  FOUNTAIN  SOLUTION
                   REQUIREMENTS:   Any  person choosing to comply with this
                   rule  through  the  use  of   low-VOC   inks,  coatings,
                   adhesives, or fountain solutions shall comply  with  the
                   following requirements:
                   302.1   Use  only  inks,  coatings,  or adhesives, which
                           contain, on an as-applied basis,  300  grams  or
                           less  of  VOC  per liter of material (2.5 pounds
                           per gallon), less  water  and  compounds  exempt
                           from  the  definition  of  VOC.  VOC content for
                           inks,   coatings,   and   adhesives   shall   be
                           determined  using  the appropriate  test  method
                           pursuant  to  Section   502  and  the  following
                           equation:

                                   (Wm - Ww - Wex) / (Vm - Vw - Vex)

                               Where:   Wm   =  weight   of   all  volatile
                                        compounds in grams or
                                                                          pounds
                                        Ww  = weight of water in  grams  or
                                        pounds
                                        
                                        Wex  =  weight  of compounds exempt
                                        from         the         definition
                                        of VOC, in grams or pounds
                                        
                                        Vm  = volume of material in  liters
                                        or gallons
                                        
                                        Vw  = volume of water in liters  or
                                        gallons
                                        
                                        Vex  =  volume  of compounds exempt
                                        from         the         definition
                                        of VOC, in liters or gallons

                   302.2   Use only fountain solutions which contain, on an
                           as-applied basis, 116 grams or less of  VOC  per
                           liter  of  material.   VOC  content for fountain
                           solutions,  as  well  as  makeup   solvents  and
                           surface preparation and cleanup solvents,  shall
                           be  determined using the appropriate test method
                           pursuant   to  Section  502  and  the  following
                           equation:

                                   (Wm - Ww - Wex) / (Vm)

                               Where:   Wm    =   weight  of  all  volatile
                                        compounds in grams or pounds
                                        
                                        Ww  = weight  of  water in grams or
                                        pounds
                                        
                                        Wex  =  weight of compounds  exempt
                                        from         the         definition
                                        of VOC,in grams or pounds
                                        
                                        Vm  = volume of  material in liters
                                        or gallons

              303  APPROVED EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:  A system
                   for  reducing  emissions of volatile organic  compounds,
                   approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer, and which
                   satisfies the following conditions:
                   303.1   It includes  a  control  device  and  collection
                           system  designed  and  operated  to achieve  the
                           efficiencies specified in Section  301.2  at all
                           times  during normal operation of the line being
                           controlled; and
                   303.2   It includes  a collection system which vents all
                           drying oven exhaust to the control device.

              304  SURFACE PREPARATION AND  CLEANUP  SOLVENTS:   Any person
                   using  surface  preparation  and  cleanup  solvents  for
                   graphic arts operations shall comply with the  following
                   requirements:
                   304.1   Do  not  use open containers for the storage  or
                           disposal of VOC-containing cloth or paper.
                   304.2   Do not store  unused  or  waste volatile organic
                           compounds in open containers.

          400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS

              401  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE, LITHOGRAPHIC (INCLUDING OFFSET) AND
                   LETTERPRESS  PRINTING  OPERATIONS:   Any   person  using
                   lithographic or letterpress printing operations shall be
                   in  compliance  with  the requirements of this  rule  by
                   August 24, 1993.

              402  OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE  PLAN:   Any  person  using an
                   approved emission control device pursuant to Section 303
                   as  a means of complying with this rule, as provided  in
                   Section  301,  must  submit,  with  the  application for
                   Authority  to  Construct, pursuant to Rule 201,  General
                   Permit Requirements,  an  Operation and Maintenance Plan
                   for the emission control device  to  the  Air  Pollution
                   Control   Officer  for  approval.   Plans  for  emission
                   control devices  installed  as  of February 23, 1993, if
                   not previously submitted, must be  submitted  by  August
                   24,  1993  and  receive  approval  of  the Air Pollution
                   Control Officer.  The Plan shall specify  operation  and
                   maintenance procedures which will demonstrate continuous
                   operation  of the emission control device during periods
                   of emissions-producing  operations.  The Plan shall also
                   specify which records must  be  kept  to  document these
                   operation  and  maintenance  procedures.  These  records
                   shall comply with the requirements of Sections 501.3 and
                   501.4.  The Plan shall be implemented  upon  approval of
                   the Air Pollution Control Officer.

              403  COMPLIANCE  STATEMENT REQUIREMENT:  The manufacturer  or
                   distributor of  all  inks, coatings, adhesives, fountain
                   solutions, makeup solvents,  and surface preparation and
                   cleanup solvents which are sold  for use in graphic arts
                   operations within the District shall  include on product
                   data  sheets  a designation of both the as-supplied  VOC
                   content (prior  to any recommended dilution) and the as-
                   applied VOC content  (based on any recommended dilution)
                   of each material.  The  VOC  content  of inks, coatings,
                   and adhesives shall be given pursuant to  Section 302.1.
                   The VOC content of fountain solutions, makeup  solvents,
                   and  surface  preparation and cleanup solvents shall  be
                   given pursuant to Section 302.2.

          500 MONITORING AND RECORDS

              501  USAGE RECORDS:   Effective  August  24, 1993, any person
                   subject  to  this  rule,  including facilities  claiming
                   exemption under Sections 110.1  and  110.2, shall comply
                   with the following requirements:
                   501.1   The  person  shall  maintain a current  list  of
                           inks, coatings, adhesives,  fountain  solutions,
                           makeup   solvents   (reducers,   thinners),  and
                           surface  preparation and cleanup solvents  which
                           states the VOC content of each, on an as-applied
                           (press-ready)  basis.   The VOC content of inks,
                           coatings, and adhesives shall  be given pursuant
                           to Section 302.1.  The VOC content  of  fountain
                           solutions,    makeup   solvents,   and   surface
                           preparation and  cleanup solvents shall be given
                           pursuant to Section  302.2.   For  persons using
                           graphic arts materials exceeding the  VOC limits
                           specified  in  Section  302  and using a control
                           system  pursuant to Section 303,  daily  records
                           shall be  maintained  of  the type and volume of
                           graphic arts materials used.
                   501.2   For persons using graphic arts  materials  which
                           comply  with the VOC limits specified in Section
                           302, records  shall  be  maintained on a monthly
                           basis,  showing  the type and  volume  of  inks,
                           coatings,  adhesives,  fountain  solutions,  and
                           makeup solvents  used,  and  solvents  or  other
                           materials used for surface preparation, cleanup,
                           or ink, coating, or adhesive removal.
                   501.3   Such records shall be maintained on-site for two
                           years  and  made available for review by the Air
                           Pollution Control Officer upon request.
                   501.4   Records  as  required   by   the  Operation  and
                           Maintenance  Plan  in  Section  402   shall   be
                           maintained by the source on a daily basis.
                   501.5   Any  person  using  Section  301.3 as a means of
                           complying  with  this  rule shall  maintain  the
                           records stipulated in Section  501.2  on a daily
                           basis,  instead  of  monthly.  In addition,  the
                           person  shall  maintain  daily  records  of  the
                           number of production units produced per day.

              502  TEST METHODS
                   502.1   ANALYSIS  OF  SAMPLES:    Measurement   of   the
                           volatile   content   in   adhesives,   coatings,
                           fountain  solutions,  makeup  solvents,  surface
                           preparation  and cleanup solvents, and all  inks
                           (except as provided  for in Section 502.2) shall
                           be made in accordance with EPA Method 24.
                   502.2   ANALYSIS  OF  SAMPLES,  NONHEATSET  POLYMERIZING
                           LITHOGRAPHIC OR LETTERPRESS  INKS:   Measurement
                           of  the  volatile  content  shall  be  made   in
                           accordance  with  EPA Method 24.  All components
                           of the sample must  be  weighed  in  the  proper
                           proportion into the analysis container and mixed
                           together, with the mixture then being allowed to
                           stand for at least one hour, but no more than 24
                           hours,  prior to being oven-dried at 110 degrees
                           C for 1 hour.
                   502.3   DETERMINATION   OF   EXEMPT  COMPOUNDS:   Exempt
                           compounds, as listed in  Section  225,  shall be
                           determined in accordance with ASTM D 4457-85  or
                           ARB  Method 432.  If any of the perfluorocarbons
                           are  being  claimed  as  exempt  compounds,  the
                           person  making  the  claim must state in advance
                           which  compounds  are  present,   and  the  EPA-
                           approved   test   method   used   to   make  the
                           determination of these compounds.
                   502.4   DETERMINATION   OF  CONTROL  DEVICE  EFFICIENCY:
                           Control efficiency of control equipment shall be
                           determined in accordance with EPA Method 25.
                   502.5   DETERMINATION OF  COLLECTION  SYSTEM EFFICIENCY:
                           Collection  efficiency of the collection  system
                           shall  be  determined  in  accordance  with  EPA
                           Guidelines  for  Developing  Capture  Efficiency
                           Protocols, 55  Federal  Register 26865, June 29,
                           1990.