SACAQMD RULE 454 DEGREASING OPERATIONS          
LAST REVISED 02/23/93          

          SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN AQMD                RULES AND REGULATIONS

                                  RULE 454 DEGREASING OPERATIONS
                                          Adopted 7-1-79
                                  (Amended 7-23-81 and 2-23-93)

                                              INDEX


          100 GENERAL
              101  PURPOSE
              110  EXEMPTIONS

          200 DEFINITIONS
              201  CONVEYORIZED DEGREASER
              202  DEGREASER
              203  EXEMPT COMPOUNDS
              204  FREEBOARD HEIGHT
              205  FREEBOARD RATIO
              206  LEAK
              207  LIP EXHAUST
              208  LOW VOLATILITY SOLVENT
              209  MAKEUP SOLVENT
              210  NON-VAPOR DEGREASER
              211  OPEN-TOP VAPOR DEGREASER
              212  OSHA
              213  REFRIGERATED FREEBOARD CHILLER
              214  REMOTE RESERVOIR DEGREASER
              215  SOLVENT
              216  STATIONARY SOURCE
              217  VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
              218  VOLATILE SOLVENT
              219  WIPE CLEANING
              220  WORKLOAD

          300 STANDARDS
              301  GENERAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
              302  NON-VAPOR DEGREASERS; EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
              303  VAPOR DEGREASERS; EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
              304  VAPOR DEGREASERS; SAFETY SWITCHES
              305  CONVEYORIZED DEGREASERS
              306  GENERAL OPERATING REQUIREMENTS
              307  LIP EXHAUST
              308  EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

          400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
              401  COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE
              402  CALCULATION  FOR DETERMINATION OF VOC CONTENT PER VOLUME
                   OF SOLVENT
              403  OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN

          500 MONITORING AND RECORDS
              501  USAGE RECORDS
              502  TEST METHODS
          
          100 GENERAL

              101  PURPOSE:  To limit  the  emission  of  volatile  organic
                   compounds from degreasers.

              110  EXEMPTIONS:
                   110.1   The provisions of this rule do not apply to wipe
                           cleaning.
                   110.2   The  provisions  of  Section 302 of this rule do
                           not apply to non-vapor  degreasers which have an
                           air-solvent interface area less than or equal to
                           1.0 m2, or to remote reservoir  degreasers using
                           a  non-volatile solvent spray which  is  drained
                           into  the remote reservoir concurrently with the
                           degreasing operation.
                   110.3   The provisions  of Section 306.7 of this rule do
                           not  apply to open-top  vapor  degreasers  where
                           solvent  flow  is  conducted pursuant to Section
                           306.10.b. and liquid  solvent  does  not  splash
                           above the air-vapor interface.

          200 DEFINITIONS

              201  CONVEYORIZED   DEGREASER:    Any   continually   loaded,
                   conveyorized degreaser, using solvent that is maintained
                   either   above   or  below  the  initial  boiling  point
                   temperature of the solvent.

              202  DEGREASER:  A container  that  contains  solvent or into
                   which solvent is sprayed and concurrently  drained, used
                   to  remove  oil,  grease,  soil, coating, dirt or  other
                   undesirable matter from workloads.

              203  EXEMPT COMPOUNDS:  The following  compounds  are  exempt
                   from the definition of VOC in Section 217.
                   203.1   methane
                   203.2   carbon dioxide
                   203.3   carbon monoxide
                   203.4   carbonic acid
                   203.5   metallic carbides
                   203.6   carbonates
                   203.7   ammonium carbonate
                   203.8   1,1,1-trichloroethane
                   203.9   methylene chloride
                   203.10  trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11)
                   203.11  dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)
                   203.12  chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)
                   203.13  trifluoromethane (HFC-23)
                   203.14  trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113)
                   203.15  dichlorotetrafluoroethane (CFC-114)
                   203.16  chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115)
                   203.17  dichlorotrifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
                   203.18  2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
                   203.19  pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
                   203.20  1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
                   203.21  tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
                   203.22  dichlorofluoroethane (HCFC-141b)
                   203.23  chlorodifluoroethane (HCFC-142b)
                   203.24  1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
                   203.25  1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a).
                   203.26  The   following   classes   of   perfluorocarbon
                           compounds:
                           a.  Cyclic,   branched,  or  linear,  completely
                               fluorinated alkanes,
                           b.  Cyclic,  branched,   or  linear,  completely
                               fluorinated ethers, with no unsaturations,
                           c.  Cyclic,  branched,  or  linear,   completely
                               fluorinated    tertiary   amines   with   no
                               unsaturations.
                           d.  Sulfur-containing  perfluorocarbons  with no
                               unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only  to
                               carbon and fluorine.

              204  FREEBOARD HEIGHT:
                   204.1   For non-vapor degreasers, freeboard height means
                           the  distance from the top of the solvent to the
                           top of the tank.
                   204.2   For vapor degreasers, freeboard height means the
                           distance from the solvent vapor-air interface to
                           the top of the degreaser.

              205  FREEBOARD RATIO:   The  freeboard  height divided by the
                   smaller of the inside length or the  inside width of the
                   degreaser's evaporative surface area.

              206  LEAK:  Three or more drops of liquid solvent per minute.

              207  LIP  EXHAUST:   A system which collects  solvent  vapors
                   escaping from the  top  of  a degreaser and directs them
                   away from operating personnel.

              208  LOW VOLATILITY SOLVENT:  Any  solvent  with  an  initial
                   boiling  point  which is greater than 248oF (120oC),  as
                   determined pursuant to Section 502.1.

              209  MAKEUP SOLVENT:   The  solvent added to the degreaser to
                   replace solvent lost through evaporation or other means.

              210  NON-VAPOR DEGREASER:  Any degreaser using solvent which,
                   if heated, is maintained below the initial boiling point
                   temperature of the solvent.

              211  OPEN-TOP VAPOR DEGREASER:   Any  batch-loaded  degreaser
                   using  solvent  which  is  maintained  above the initial
                   boiling  point  temperature of the solvent.   Degreasing
                   occurs through the condensation of the resultant solvent
                   vapor onto the surface of the workload.

              212  OSHA:  Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

              213  REFRIGERATED FREEBOARD  CHILLER:   A  secondary  cooling
                   coil  mounted above the primary condenser which provides
                   a  chilled  air  blanket  above  the  solvent  vapor-air
                   interface   to  cause  the  condensation  of  additional
                   solvent  vapor,   thereby   increasing   vapor   control
                   efficiency.

              214  REMOTE RESERVOIR DEGREASER:  A non-vapor degreaser  with
                   a tank which is completely enclosed except for a solvent
                   return  opening  no larger than 15.50 square inches (100
                   square centimeters)  which  allows used solvent to drain
                   into it from a separate solvent  sink  or  work area and
                   which is not accessible for soaking workloads.

              215  SOLVENT:   VOC-containing  compounds which are  used  as
                   diluents, thinners, dissolvers,  viscosity  reducers, or
                   cleaning agents.

              216  STATIONARY  SOURCE:  Any building, structure,  facility,
                   or emissions  unit  which emits or may emit any affected
                   pollutant directly or as a fugitive emission.
                   216.1   Building, structure, facility, or emissions unit
                           includes  all   pollutant   emitting  activities
                           which:
                           a.  Belong to the same industrial grouping, and
                           b.  Are located on one property,  or two or more
                               contiguous  properties, and
                           c.  Are  under  the  same  or  common ownership,
                               operation, or   control, or  which are owned
                               or  operated  by entities which   are  under
                               common control.
                   216.2   Pollutant   emitting    activities    shall   be
                           considered   as  part  of  the  same  industrial
                           grouping if:
                           a.  They belong  to  the same two-digit Standard
                               Industrial   Classification (SIC) code, or
                           b.  They  are  part  of  a   common   production
                               process,   which       includes   industrial
                               processes, manufacturing processes  and  any
                               connected   processes   involving  a  common
                               material.

              217  VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC):  Compounds  containing
                   at  least  one  atom of carbon, except for the compounds
                   listed in Section 203.

              218  VOLATILE SOLVENT:  Any solvent which is not defined as a
                   low volatility solvent pursuant to Section 208.

              219  WIPE CLEANING:  That method of cleaning which utilizes a
                   material such as  a  rag  wetted with a solvent, coupled
                   with a physical rubbing process  to  remove contaminants
                   from metal surfaces.

              220  WORKLOAD:   The  objects  put  in  a degreaser  for  the
                   purpose of removing oil, grease, soil,  coating, dirt or
                   other  undesirable  matter  from  the  surface   of  the
                   objects.

          300 STANDARDS

              301  GENERAL  EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS:  Any person who uses  a
                   degreaser shall utilize the following equipment:
                   301.1   An apparatus or cover which prevents the solvent
                           from evaporating when not processing work in the
                           degreaser.
                           a.  For   non-vapor  degreasers  using  volatile
                               solvent,  or  solvent that is agitated,  the
                               cover shall be  designed  so  that it can be
                               opened and closed easily with one hand.
                           b.  For  open-top  vapor degreasers,  the  cover
                               shall be designed such that it can be opened
                               and  closed easily  without  disturbing  the
                               vapor zone.
                           c.  For conveyorized  degreasers,  a cover shall
                               be provided for closing off the entrance and
                               exit during shutdown hours.
                   301.2   A facility for draining cleaned parts  such that
                           the   drained   solvent   is   returned  to  the
                           container.
                   301.3   A permanent, conspicuous label which  summarizes
                           operating requirements contained in Sections 304
                           through 306 of this rule.

              302  NON-VAPOR DEGREASERS; EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS:   A person
                   shall  operate  non-vapor  degreasers,  including remote
                   reservoirs (except as noted in Section 110.2), using one
                   of the following control devices:
                   302.1   Non-vapor  degreasers  shall  operate   with   a
                           freeboard ratio equal to or greater than 0.75 if
                           using solvents which are:
                           a.  Agitated, or
                           b.  Heated above 122oF (50oC), or
                           c.  Volatile.
                   302.2   Non-vapor  degreasers  using only low volatility
                           solvents  which are not agitated  shall  operate
                           with a freeboard height of at least 6 inches.
                   302.3   A water cover  may  be  used  as  an  acceptable
                           alternative to Sections 302.1 and 302.2  if  the
                           solvent is insoluble in water and has a specific
                           gravity greater than 1.

              303  VAPOR  DEGREASERS;  EQUIPMENT  REQUIREMENTS:   A  person
                   shall   operate   vapor  degreasers  using  one  of  the
                   following control devices:
                   303.1   A freeboard ratio greater than or equal to 0.75;
                           or
                   303.2   A refrigerated  freeboard  chiller for which the
                           chilled  air  blanket temperature  (oF)  at  the
                           coldest point on the vertical axis in the center
                           of the air-vapor  interface  shall be no greater
                           than 30% of the initial boiling  point  (oF)  of
                           the fresh solvent used.
                   303.3   A  carbon adsorption system which ventilates the
                           air-vapor  interface  at  a  minimum  rate of 15
                           m3/min/m2,  but  not  greater than 20 m3/min/m2,
                           unless necessary to meet  Federal and State OSHA
                           requirements, with a solvent vapor concentration
                           exiting the exhaust duct of  the carbon adsorber
                           of  less than 25 ppm solvent averaged  over  one
                           complete adsorption cycle.

              304  VAPOR DEGREASERS; SAFETY SWITCHES:  If a vapor degreaser
                   is used, then the following equipment shall be utilized.
                   304.1   A device  which shuts off the sump heater if the
                           condenser coolant  stops  circulating or becomes
                           warmer than specified;
                   304.2   For degreasers of the spray type, a device which
                           prevents spray pump operation unless the solvent
                           vapor level is at the designed  operating level;
                           and
                   304.3   A device (of the manual reset type)  which shuts
                           off  the sump heater if the solvent vapor  level
                           rises above the designed operating level.

              305  CONVEYORIZED   DEGREASERS:     In    addition   to   the
                   requirements of Sections 302 and 303, a person shall not
                   operate a conveyorized degreaser unless  it  is equipped
                   with both of the following control devices:
                   305.1   Either a drying tunnel or other means  such as a
                           rotating  basket,  sufficient to prevent cleaned
                           parts from carrying out solvent liquid or vapor,
                           and
                   305.2   Minimized opening:   entrances  and exits should
                           silhouette   workloads   so  that  the   average
                           clearance  between parts and  the  edge  of  the
                           degreaser opening  is  either less than 4 inches
                           (10 cm) or less than 10  percent of the width of
                           the opening.

              306  GENERAL OPERATING REQUIREMENTS:  Any  person  who uses a
                   degreaser   must  conform  to  the  following  operating
                   requirements:
                   306.1   Operate  and maintain the degreaser and emission
                           control equipment in proper working order.
                   306.2   Do  not allow  any  solvent  to  leak  from  any
                           portion of the degreaser.
                   306.3   Do not  store or dispose of any solvent from the
                           degreaser,  including  waste  solvent, in such a
                           manner  as  will cause or allow its  evaporation
                           into the atmosphere.
                   306.4   If distillation  recovery  of  waste  solvent is
                           performed,  solvent  residues  shall not contain
                           more  than  10 percent solvent by  volume  after
                           distillation.
                   306.5   Do not remove  or  open  any  device designed to
                           cover the solvent unless processing  work in the
                           degreaser  or  performing  maintenance  on   the
                           degreaser.
                   306.6   Drain   cleaned   parts   after  cleaning  until
                           dripping ceases (non-vapor degreaser only).
                   306.7   If using a solvent flow, use  only a continuous,
                           fluid  stream (not a fine, atomized,  or  shower
                           type spray)  at  a pressure which does not cause
                           liquid  solvent  to   splash   outside   of  the
                           degreaser.
                   306.8   Perform  solvent agitation, where necessary,  by
                           means other than air agitation.
                   306.9   Do not degrease  porous  or  absorbent materials
                           such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope.
                   306.10  For vapor degreasers:
                           a.  Workloads shall not occupy more than half of
                               the  degreaser's evaporative  surface  area,
                               and
                           b.  Solvent  spray  shall  be  kept  at  least 4
                               inches below the air-vapor interface.
                           c.  When  starting  the  degreaser,  the cooling
                               system   shall  be  turned  on  before,   or
                               simultaneously with, the sump heater.
                           d.  When shutting  down  the degreaser, the sump
                               heater  shall  be  turned   off  before,  or
                               simultaneously with, the cooling system.
                           e.  The degreaser shall be covered  whenever the
                               cooling system is off.
                   306.11  A person shall minimize solvent carry-out by the
                           following measures, as applicable:
                           a.  Rack workload to facilitate drainage;
                           b.  Move workload in and out of the degreaser at
                               less than 3.3 m/min (11 ft/min);
                           c.  Degrease  the  workload  in  the vapor  zone
                               until condensation ceases;
                           d.  Allow  workload to dry within the  degreaser
                               until visually dry;
                           e.  For manual  operation,  tip out any pools of
                               solvent  remaining  on the  workload  before
                               removing it from the degreaser.

              307  LIP EXHAUST:  Effective February 23, 1993, a lip exhaust
                   system shall not be added to any degreaser, unless it is
                   vented  to  an  emission  control  system,  pursuant  to
                   Section 308.  The lip exhaust shall  be  turned off when
                   the degreaser is covered.

              308  EMISSION  CONTROL  SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS:  Any  person  or
                   stationary  source subject  to  this  rule  may  use  an
                   emissions control  system  as an alternative to Sections
                   302, 303.1, or 303.2, provided  that  the  system has an
                   overall  control  efficiency  (the collection efficiency
                   multiplied by the control efficiency)  of  at  least  85
                   percent  on  a  mass  basis,  as  determined pursuant to
                   Sections  502.2  and  502.3.   The  emission  collection
                   system shall have a ventilation rate not greater than 20
                   cubic meters per minute per square meter  over the total
                   area of the degreaser's evaporative surface area, unless
                   the rate must be changed to meet Federal and  State OSHA
                   requirements.

          400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS

              401  COMPLIANCE  SCHEDULE:   Any person or stationary  source
                   subject  to  this  rule,  including   previously  exempt
                   sources,  shall  be  in compliance with Sections  302.2,
                   303.2, and 501 by August 24, 1993.

              402  CALCULATION FOR DETERMINATION  OF VOC CONTENT PER VOLUME
                   OF SOLVENT:  The volume of solvent  is  defined  as  the
                   volume  of the original solvent, plus any VOC-containing
                   material  added  to the original solvent.  The weight of
                   VOC per volume of  solvent  shall  be  calculated by the
                   following equation.

                                        (Wv - Ww - Wec) / (Vs)

                               Where:   Wv    =  weight  of  all   volatile
                                        compounds.
                                        
                                        Ww  = weight of water.
                                        
                                        Wec = weight of compounds listed as
                                        exempt  in  Section  203  from  the
                                        definition of VOC.
                                        
                                        Vs  = volume of solvent.

              403  OPERATION  AND  MAINTENANCE  PLAN:   Any person using an
                   approved emission control device pursuant to Section 308
                   as a means of complying with this rule,  as  provided in
                   Sections  302,  303.1,  or 303.2, must submit, with  the
                   application for Authority to Construct, pursuant to Rule
                   201,  General  Permit  Requirements,  an  Operation  and
                   Maintenance Plan for the  emission control device to the
                   Air Pollution Control Officer  for  approval.  Plans for
                   emission control devices installed as  of  February  23,
                   1993,  if not previously submitted, must be submitted by
                   August  24,   1993  and  receive  approval  of  the  Air
                   Pollution  Control  Officer.   The  Plan  shall  specify
                   operation  and   maintenance   procedures   which   will
                   demonstrate continuous operation of the emission control
                   device during periods of emissions-producing operations.
                   The  Plan  shall also specify which records must be kept
                   to document  these operation and maintenance procedures.
                   These records  shall  comply  with  the  requirements of
                   Sections 501.2 and 501.3.  The Plan shall be implemented
                   upon approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer.
          500 MONITORING AND RECORDS

              501  USAGE  RECORDS:   In  addition  to  any existing  permit
                   conditions  issued  pursuant  to  Rule  201,   effective
                   February 23, 1993 any person subject to this rule  shall
                   comply with the following requirements:
                   501.1   USAGE  AMOUNTS:   The  person  shall record on a
                           quarterly  basis the type and total  volume  for
                           the stationary source of makeup solvent used for
                           all cleaners subject to this rule.
                   501.2   CONTROL EQUIPMENT:  Any person using an emission
                           control system  pursuant  to  Section  308  as a
                           means of complying with this rule shall maintain
                           such  records  as  required by the Operation and
                           Maintenance  Plan in  Section  403  on  a  daily
                           basis.
                   501.3   DURATION  OF RECORDS:   Such  records  shall  be
                           maintained   on-site  for  two  years  and  made
                           available  for   review  by  the  Air  Pollution
                           Control Officer upon request.

              502  TEST METHODS
                   502.1   DETERMINATION  OF BOILING  POINT:   The  initial
                           boiling point of solvents shall be determined in
                           accordance with ASTM D 1078-86.
                   502.2   DETERMINATION OF  CONTROL  EFFICIENCY:   Control
                           efficiency   of   control   equipment  shall  be
                           determined in accordance with EPA Method 25.
                   502.3   DETERMINATION    OF    COLLECTION    EFFICIENCY:
                           Collection  efficiency of the collection  system
                           shall  be  determined  in  accordance  with  EPA
                           Guidelines  for  Developing  Capture  Efficiency
                           Protocols, 55  Federal  Register 26865, June 29,
                           1990.
                   502.4   DETERMINATION     OF    VOLUMETRIC     FLOWRATE:
                           Volumetric  flowrate   shall  be  determined  in
                           accordance with EPA Methods 2, 2A, 2C, and 2D.
                   502.5   DETERMINATION OF VOC CONTENT:   VOC  content  of
                           solvents  shall be determined in accordance with
                           EPA Method 24 and Sections 402 and 502.6 of this
                           rule.
                   502.6   DETERMINATION   OF  COMPOUNDS  EXEMPT  FROM  VOC
                           DEFINITION:  Compounds  exempted  from  the  VOC
                           definition, as  listed  in  Section  203 of this
                           rule,  shall  be  determined in accordance  with
                           ASTM D 4457-85 or ARB Method 432.  If any of the
                           perfluorocarbons are  being  claimed  as  exempt
                           compounds,  the  person  making  the  claim must
                           state  in  advance  which compounds are present,
                           and the EPA-approved  test  method  used to make
                           the determination of these compounds.