RULE 450


Adopted 7-23-81

(Amended 11-29-83, 2-23-93, 9-5-96, 12-5-96)








101 PURPOSE: To limit the emission of volatile organic compounds from graphic arts operations.

102 APPLICABILITY: The provisions of this rule shall apply to graphic arts operations as defined in Section 210. The requirements of Rule 441, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, shall not apply to operations subject to this rule.



201 COATING: The application of a uniform layer of material across the entire width of a substrate. Those machines which have both coating and printing units are considered to be performing a graphic arts operation.

202 CONTROL DEVICE: Equipment such as an incinerator or adsorber used to prevent air pollutants from reaching the ambient air.

203 CONVERTING OPERATION: Coating, waxing, laminating, extrusion coating and printing, for fabrication of base materials. The base materials are then used to produce wraps, bags, and other preformed packages.

204 DOCTOR BLADE: A steel blade used to scrape excess ink from a printing plate.

205 DRYING OVEN: An oven used to hasten the process of drying printed or coated material.

206 EXEMPT COMPOUND: For the purposes of this rule, "exempt compound" has the same meaning as in Rule 101—GENERAL PROVISIONS AND DEFINITIONS.

207 FLEXIBLE PACKAGING INDUSTRY: Establishments that convert materials consisting of light gauge papers, plastic films, cellulosic films such as cellophane, thin gauge metal sheets such as aluminum foil or steel foil, and combinations thereof into a variety of product packages.

208 FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING: A printing operation in which words, designs, or pictures are applied to a substrate by means of a roll printing technique in which a raised pattern is applied to an image carrier made of rubber or other elastomeric materials mounted on a steel matting cylinder. The image is then printed directly from the raised pattern to the substrate.

209 FOUNTAIN SOLUTION: The solution applied to the image plate to maintain the hydrophilic properties of the nonimage areas and to keep the nonimage area free from ink.

210 GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS: Publication gravure, packaging gravure, web-feed wallpaper screen printing, specialty gravure, flexographic printing operations, lithographic printing operations, letterpress printing operations, or any coating or laminating operation that manufactures flexible packaging material for the packaging industry. Coating operations which are performed by a machine having only coating units and no printing units are not graphic arts operations.

211 GRAVURE PRINTING: An intaglio printing operation in which the ink is transferred from minute etched wells which comprise the image on a plate to the substrate which is supported by an impression roller, with excess ink removed from the plate by a doctor blade.

212 INTAGLIO PRINTING: A printing operation done from a plate in which the image is etched or engraved into the surface.

213 LAMINATING OPERATIONS: A process of composing two or more layers of material to form a single multiple-layer sheet by using adhesive as the bonding agent.

214 LETTERPRESS PRINTING: A printing operation in which the image area is raised relative to the nonimage area and the ink is transferred to the paper directly from the image surface.

215 LINE: The minimum equipment which is required for the application and/or curing of inks and/or coatings on a substrate, including the ink and/or coating applicators and heating oven(s) and associated ink and coating mixing equipment.

216 LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING: A printing operation in which the image and nonimage areas exist in the same plane. The nonimage area is treated chemically so that only the image areas will be printed onto the substrate.

217 NONHEATSET INK: An ink which dries primarily by oxidation and absorption into the substrate without the use of heat from dryers or ovens, used primarily in lithographic and letterpress printing.

218 NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE: Any substrate other than paper or paperboard, including but not limited to foil, polyethylene, polypropylene, cellophane, metallized polyester, nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (mylar), but not including wood, metal, or ceramic materials.

219 OFFSET PRINTING: A lithographic printing operation in which the image area is transferred, or offset, to another surface, and then printed onto the substrate.

220 PACKAGING GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation on paper, paperboard, foil, film or other substrates which are to be used to produce containers or packages.

221 POROUS SUBSTRATE: Paper or paperboard.

222 PRODUCTION UNIT: A ream of paper, consisting of 500 sheets of paper.

223 PUBLICATION GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation on paper which is subsequently formed into books, magazines, catalogs, brochures, directories, newspaper supplements or other publication material.

224 ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING: A rotary gravure printing system with continuous rolls or webs of substrate fed through the printing press.

225 SCREEN PRINTING: A printing operation in which the printing ink passes through a refined form of stencil to a web or fabric. The stencil openings determine the form and dimension of the imprint.

226 SPECIALTY GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation for production of wall and floor covering, decorated household paper products such as towels and tissues, cigarette filter tips, vinyl upholstery, gift wrap, and woodgrains.

227 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC): For the purposes of this rule, "volatile organic compound" has the same meaning as in Rule 101—GENERAL PROVISIONS AND DEFINITIONS.

228 WEB: A continuous sheet of substrate that is printed on web-fed printing presses.

229 WEB-FEED: An automatic system on a printing press which supplies a web substrate to the printing unit.


301POROUS AND NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE REQUIREMENTS: Any person operating equipment for packaging gravure printing, specialty gravure printing, wall-paper screen printing, flexographic printing, lithographic printing, letterpress printing, and any related coating or laminating operations on porous or nonporous substrates, including detergent packages, shall comply with one of the following requirements:

302 LOW-V0C INK, COATING, ADHESIVE, AND FOUNTAIN SOLUTION REQUIREMENTS: Any person choosing to comply with this rule through the use of low-VOC inks, coatings, adhesives, or fountain solutions shall comply with the following requirements:

303 APPROVED EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: A system for reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds, approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer, and which satisfies the following conditions:

304 SURFACE PREPARATION AND CLEANUP SOLVENTS: Any person using surface preparation and cleanup solvents for graphic arts operations shall comply with the following requirements:


401 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE, LITHOGRAPHIC (INCLUDING OFFSET) AND LETTERPRESS PRINTING OPERATIONS: Any person using lithographic or letterpress printing operations shall be in compliance with the requirements of this rule by August 24, 1993.

402 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN: Any person using an approved emission control device pursuant to Section 303 as a means of complying with this rule, as provided in Section 301, must submit, with the application for Authority to Construct, pursuant to Rule 201, General Permit Requirements, an Operation and Maintenance Plan for the emission control device to the Air Pollution Control Officer for approval. Plans for emission control devices installed as of February 23, 1993, if not previously submitted, must be submitted by August 24, 1993 and receive approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer. The Plan shall specify operation and maintenance procedures which will demonstrate continuous operation of the emission control device during periods of emissions-producing operations. The Plan shall also specify which records must be kept to document these operation and maintenance procedures. These records shall comply with the requirements of Sections 501.3 and 501.4. The Plan shall be implemented upon approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer.

403 COMPLIANCE STATEMENT REQUIREMENT: The manufacturer or distributor of all inks, coatings, adhesives, fountain solutions, makeup solvents, and surface preparation and cleanup solvents which are sold for use in graphic arts operations within the District shall include on product data sheets a designation of both the as-supplied VOC content (prior to any recommended dilution) and the as-applied VOC content (based on any recommended dilution) of each material. The VOC content of inks, coatings, and adhesives shall be given pursuant to Section 302.1. The VOC content of fountain solutions, makeup solvents, and surface preparation and cleanup solvents shall be given pursuant to Section 302.2.


501 USAGE RECORDS: Effective August 24, 1993, any person subject to this rule, including facilities claiming exemption under Sections 110.1 and 110.2, shall comply with the following requirements: