SCAMQD RULE 1171 SOLVENT CLEANING OPERATIONS
LAST REVISED 06/13/97



(Adopted August 2, 1991)(Amended May 12, 1995)(Amended September 13, 1996)
(Amended June 13, 1997)

RULE 1171. SOLVENT CLEANING OPERATIONS

(a) Purpose and Applicability

The purpose of this rule is to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and stratospheric ozone-depleting or global-warming compounds from solvent cleaning operations and activities, and from the storage and disposal of these materials used in solvent cleaning. This rule applies to all persons who use VOC-containing materials in solvent cleaning operations during the production, repair, maintenance, or servicing of parts, products, tools, machinery, equipment, or general work areas, and to all persons who store and dispose of VOC-containing materials used in solvent cleaning.

(b) Definitions

For the purpose of this rule, the following definitions shall apply:

  1. AEROSOL PRODUCT is a hand-held, nonrefillable container which expels pressurized product by means of a propellant-induced force.
  2. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT is a device used to apply adhesive, coating, ink, or polyester resin materials.
  3. APPLICATION LINE is that portion of a motor vehicle assembly production line which applies surface and other coatings to motor vehicle bodies, hoods, fenders, cargo boxes, doors, and grill opening panels.
  4. CLEAN AIR SOLVENTS are as defined in Rule 102. :
  5. CLEAN AIR SOLVENT CERTIFICATE is a certificate issued by the District to a manufacturer, distributor, or person for a specific product or class of products that meets the criteria for a Clean Air Solvent.
  6. CURED COATINGS, CURED INKS, AND CURED ADHESIVES are coatings, inks, and adhesives which are dry to the touch.
  7. ELECTRICAL APPARATUS COMPONENTS are all internal components such as wires, windings, stators, rotors, magnets, contacts, relays, energizers, and connections in apparatus that generates or transmits electrical energy including generators, transformers, and electric motors.
  8. ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS are all portions of an assembly, including circuit card assemblies, printed wire assemblies, printed circuit boards, soldered joints, ground wires, bus bars, and other electrical fixtures, except for the actual cabinet in which the components are housed.
  9. EXEMPT COMPOUNDS are as defined in Rule 102.
  10. FACILITY means a business or businesses engaged in solvent cleaning operations which are owned or operated by the same person or persons and are located on the same or contiguous parcels.
  11. FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING is the method in which the image area is raised relative to the nonimage area and utilizes flexible rubber or other elastomeric plate and rapid drying liquid inks.
  12. GRAMS OF VOC PER LITER OF MATERIAL is the weight of VOC per volume of material and can be calculated by the following equation:
  13. Grams of VOC per liter of material =

    Where:

Ws = Weight of volatile compounds in grams

Ww = Weight of water in grams

Wes = Weight of exempt compounds in grams

Vm = Volume of material in liters
  1. GRAPHIC ARTS are all gravure, letterpress, flexographic, and lithographic printing processes.
  2. GRAVURE PRINTING is an intaglio process in which the ink is carried in minute etched or engraved wells on a roll or cylinder. The excess ink is removed from the surface by a doctor blade.
  3. HIGH PRECISION OPTICS are optical elements used in electro-optical devices and are designed to sense, detect, or transmit light energy, including specific wavelengths of light energy and changes in light energy levels.
  4. INSTITUTIONAL CLEANING refers to cleaning activities conducted at organizations, societies, or corporations including, but not limited to schools, hospitals, sanitariums, and prisons.
  5. JANITORIAL CLEANING is the cleaning of building or facility components, such as the floors, ceilings, walls, windows, doors, stairs, bathrooms, etc.
  6. LETTERPRESS PRINTING is the method in which the image area is raised relative to the nonimage area and the ink is transferred to the paper directly from the image surface.
  7. LIQUID LEAK is the visible liquid solvent leak from the container at a rate of more than three (3) drops per minute, or a visible liquid mist.
  8. LIQUID-TIGHT FOOD CONTAINER is a paperboard container that can hold liquid food and food products without leaking even when it is held upside-down.
  9. LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING is a plane-o-graphic method in which the image and nonimage areas are on the same plane.
  10. MAINTENANCE CLEANING is a solvent cleaning operation or activity carried out to keep tools, machinery, equipment excluding application equipment, or general work areas in clean and good operational condition.
  11. MANUFACTURING PROCESS is the process of making goods or articles by hand or by machinery.
  12. MEDICAL DEVICE is an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent or other similar article, including any component or accessory, that meets one of the following conditions:
  13. (A) it is intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease; or

    (B) it is intended to affect the structure or any function of the body; or

    (C) it is defined in the National Formulary or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to them.

  14. NON-ABSORBENT CONTAINERS are containers made of nonporous material which do not allow the migration of the liquid solvent through them.
  15. NON-ATOMIZED SOLVENT FLOW is the use of a solvent in the form of a liquid stream without atomization to remove uncured adhesives, uncured inks, uncured coatings, and contaminants from an article.
  16. NON-LEAKING CONTAINERS are containers without liquid leaks.
  17. PERSON is any firm, business establishment, association, partnership, corporation or individual, whether acting as principal, agent, employee, or other capacity including any governmental entity or charitable organization.
  18. PRINTING in the graphic arts is any operation that imparts color, design, alphabet, or numerals on a substrate.
  19. REMOTE RESERVOIR CLEANER is a cleaning device in which liquid solvent is pumped from a solvent container to a sink-like work area and the solvent from the sink-like area drains into an enclosed solvent container while parts are being cleaned.
  20. REPAIR CLEANING is a solvent cleaning operation or activity carried out during a repair process.
  21. REPAIR PROCESS is the process of returning a damaged object or an object not operating properly to good condition.
  22. SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS are instruments (including the components, assemblies, and subassemblies used in their manufacture) and associated accessories and reagents which are used for the detection, measurement, analysis, separation, synthesis, or sequencing of various compounds.
  23. SCREEN PRINTING is a process in which the printing ink passes through a web or a fabric to which a refined form of stencil has been applied. The stencil openings determine the form and dimensions of the imprint.
  24. SOLVENT is a VOC-containing liquid used to perform solvent cleaning.
  25. SOLVENT CLEANING is the removal of loosely held uncured adhesives, uncured inks, uncured coatings, and contaminants which include, but are not limited to, dirt, soil, and grease from parts, products, tools, machinery, equipment, and general work areas. Each distinct method of cleaning in a cleaning process which consists of a series of cleaning methods, shall constitute a separate solvent cleaning operation.
  26. SOLVENT FLUSHING is the use of a solvent to remove uncured adhesives, uncured inks, uncured coatings, or contaminants from the internal surfaces and passages of the equipment by flushing solvent through the equipment.
  27. SPECIALTY FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING is flexographic printing on polyethylene or polypropylene food packaging, fertilizer bags, or liquid-tight food containers.
  28. STERILIZATION INDICATING INKS are inks that change color to indicate that sterilization has occurred. Such inks are used to monitor the sterilization of medical instruments, autoclave efficiency, and the thermal processing of foods for prevention of spoilage.
  29. STRIPPING is the removal of cured coatings, cured inks, and cured adhesives.
  30. SURFACE PREPARATION is the removal of contaminants such as dust, soil, oil, grease, etc., prior to coating, adhesive, or ink applications.
  31. ULTRAVIOLET INKS are inks which dry by polymerization reaction induced by ultraviolet energy.
  32. VOC COMPOSITE PARTIAL PRESSURE is the sum of the partial pressures of the compounds defined as VOCs. VOC Composite Partial Pressure is calculated as follows:

    Where:

Wi = Weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams

Ww = Weight of water in grams

We = Weight of exempt compound, in grams

MWi = Molecular weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams per gram-mole

MWw = Molecular weight of water, in grams per gram-mole

MWe = Molecular weight of exempt compound, in grams per gram-mole

PPc = VOC composite partial pressure at 20oC, in mm Hg

VPi = Vapor pressure of the "i"th VOC compound at 20oC, in mm Hg
  1. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) is as defined in Rule 102.
  2. WIPE CLEANING is the method of cleaning a surface by physically rubbing it with a material such as a rag, paper, sponge or a cotton swab moistened with a solvent.

(c) Requirements

  1. Solvent Requirements
  2. A person shall not use a solvent to perform solvent cleaning unless the solvent complies with the applicable requirements set forth below:


CURRENT LIMITS Effective 1/1/1997 Effective 1/1/1999
SOLVENT CLEANING ACTIVITY VOC
g/l
(lb/gal)
VOC Composite Partial Pressure mm Hg @ 20oC (68oF) VOC
g/l
(lb/gal)
VOC Composite Partial Pressure
mm Hg @ 20oC (68oF)
VOC
g/l
(lb/gal)
VOC Composite Partial Pressure
mm Hg @ 20oC (68oF)
(A) Product Cleaning During Manufacturing Process Or Surface Preparation For Coating, Adhesive, Or Ink Application





(i) General 70

(0.58)






(ii) Electronic Components or Medical Devices 900

(7.5)

33



(B) Repair and Maintenance Cleaning





(i) General 900

(7.5)

20

50

(0.42)


(ii) Electrical Apparatus Components 900

(7.5)

20



(iii) Medical Devices 900

(7.5)

33



(C) Cleaning of Coatings, or Adhesives Application Equipment 950

(7.9)

35



(D) Cleaning of Ink Application Equipment





(i) General 100

(0.83)

3



(ii) Flexographic or Gravure Printing 100

(0.83)

3



(iii) Lithographic or Letter Press Printing 900

(7.5)

25


10
(iv) Screen Printing 1070

(8.9)

5



(v) Ultraviolet Inks (except screen printing) 800

(6.7)

33



(vi) Specialty Flexographic Printing 810

(6.8)

21



(E) Cleaning of Polyester Resin Application Equipment 200

(1.7)


50

(0.42)




or
1



  1. Cleaning Devices and Methods Requirements
  2. A person shall not perform solvent cleaning unless one of the following cleaning devices or methods is used:

    (A) Wipe cleaning;

    (B) Closed containers or hand held spray bottles from which solvents are applied without a propellant-induced force;

    (C) Cleaning equipment which has a solvent container that can be, and is closed during cleaning operations, except when depositing and removing objects to be cleaned, and is closed during nonoperation with the exception of maintenance and repair to the cleaning equipment itself;

    (D) Cleaning device which is listed in the Office of Operations' manual "Alternative Devices for Rule 1171 Compliance" dated July 1, 1991. The Executive Officer shall periodically update the manual to identify any additional cleaning devices determined by the Executive Officer to result in equivalent or lower emissions;

    (E) Remote reservoir cleaner used pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (c)(3);

    (F) Non-atomized solvent flow method where the cleaning solvent is collected in a container or a collection system which is closed except for solvent collection openings and, if necessary, openings to avoid excessive pressure build-up inside the container; or

    (G) Solvent flushing method where the cleaning solvent is discharged into a container which is closed except for solvent collection openings and, if necessary, openings to avoid excessive pressure build-up inside the container. The discharged solvent from the equipment must be collected into containers without atomizing into the open air. The solvent may be flushed through the system by air or hydraulic pressure, or by pumping.

  3. Remote Reservoir Cleaners
  4. Regardless of Rule 1122 requirements, any person owning or operating a remote reservoir cleaner shall comply with all of the following requirements in addition to the VOC limits for repair and maintenance cleaning specified in clause (c)(1)(B)(i):

    (A) Prevent solvent vapors from escaping from the solvent container by using such devices as a cover or a valve when the remote reservoir is not being used, cleaned, or repaired;

    (B) Direct solvent flow in a manner that will prevent liquid solvent from splashing outside of the remote reservoir cleaner;

    (C) Do not clean porous or absorbent materials, such as cloth, leather, wood, or rope; and

    (D) Use only solvent containers free of all liquid leaks. Auxiliary equipment, such as pumps, pipelines, or flanges, shall not have any liquid leaks, visible tears, or cracks. Any liquid leak, visible tear, or crack detected shall be repaired within one (1) calendar day, or the leaking section of the remote reservoir cold cleaner shall be drained of all solvent and shut down until it is replaced or repaired.

  5. Storage and Disposal
  6. All VOC-containing solvents, used in solvent cleaning operations, shall be stored in non-absorbent, non-leaking containers which shall be kept closed at all times except when filling or emptying. It is recommended that cloth and paper moistened with VOC-containing solvents be stored in closed, non-absorbent, non-leaking containers.

  7. Control Equipment
  8. In lieu of complying with the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) or (c)(2), a person may comply by using a VOC emission collection and control system in association with the solvent cleaning operation provided:

    (A) the emission control system shall collect at least 90 percent, by weight, of the emissions generated by the solvent cleaning operation and

    (i) have a destruction efficiency of at least 95 percent, by weight, or

    (ii) have an output of less than 50 parts per million (PPM) calculated as carbon with no dilution; or

    (B) the emission control system meets the requirements of the applicable source specific rule of the District's Regulation XI. The collection system for cleaning in graphic arts and screen printing and cleaning of application equipment used for graphic arts materials and screen printing materials, shall collect at least 70 percent, by weight, of the emissions generated. This control system shall reduce emissions from the emission collection system by at least 95 percent.

  9. Clean Air Solvent Certificate
  10. A manufacturer, distributor, or person may apply for a Clean Air Solvent Certificate for a specific product or class of products that meets the requirements for a Clean Air Solvent.

    (A) The application shall contain all relevant information to support the technical basis for designation as a Clean Air Solvent.

    (B) The Executive Officer will issue a certificate for a Clean Air Solvent if it is determined that the specific product or class of products meets the requirements of Clean Air Solvents as defined in Rule 102.

    A Clean Air Solvent Certificate shall be valid for five years from the date of issuance and shall be renewed upon the Executive Officerís determination that the product(s) continues to meet the criteria for a Clean Air Solvent. However, the Executive Officer may revoke such Certificate if it is determined that the specific product or class of products does not meet the requirements of Clean Air Solvents as defined in Rule 102.

  11. Recordkeeping Requirements
  12. Records shall be maintained pursuant to Rule 109 for all applications subject to this rule, including those exempted under section (h), except the following:

    (A) Facilities not subject to recordkeeping requirements from any other Regulation XI rules.

    (B) Cleaning performed with a solvent which has a water content of 98 percent or more, by weight, or a VOC composite partial pressure of 0.1 mm Hg or less at 20oC (68oF), or contains VOC consisting of more than 12 carbon atoms.

(d) Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) Technology Assessment

By the year 2000, the District will perform a Technology Assessment to determine whether additional reductions from solvent cleaning operations are feasible or necessary in order to achieve the objectives of the AQMP.

(e) General Prohibitions

  1. A person shall not atomize any solvent unless it is vented to air pollution control equipment which meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(5).
  2. A person shall not specify or require any person to use solvent or equipment subject to the provisions of this rule that does not meet the requirements of this rule.
  3. On and after January 1, 1997, a person shall not perform solvent cleaning activities or operations subject to the provisions of this rule with any material which contains Group II exempt compounds listed in Rule 102 except methylene chloride, parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCBTF), cyclic, branched, or linear, completely methylated siloxanes (VMS), and perchloroethylene.

(f) Test Methods

For the purpose of this rule, the following test methods shall be used. Other test methods determined to be equivalent after review by the staffs of the District, the Air Resources Board, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and approved in writing by the District Executive Officer may also be used.

  1. Determination of VOC Content
  2. The VOC content of materials subject to the provisions of this rule shall be determined by the following methods:

    (A) United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Reference Method 24 (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 60, Appendix A). The exempt compounds' content shall be determined by the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) Method 303 (Determination of Exempt Compounds) contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual; or,

    (B) SCAQMD Method 304 [Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in Various Materials] contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual.

    (C) Exempt Perfluorocarbon Compounds

    The following classes of compounds:

      cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes;

      cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations;

      cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no unsaturations; and

      sulfur-containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and fluorine,

    will be analyzed as exempt compounds for compliance with subdivision (c), only when manufacturers specify which individual compounds are used in the solvent formulation and identify the United States Environmental Protection Agency, California Air Resources Board, and the District approved test methods used to quantify the amount of each exempt compound.

  3. Determination of VOC Composite Partial Pressure
  4. The identity and quantity of components in solvents shall be determined by SCAQMD Method 308 (Quantitation of Compounds by Gas Chromatography) contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual. The VOC composite partial pressure is calculated using the equation in paragraph (b)(43).

  5. Determination of Presence of VOC in Cleaning Materials
  6. The presence of VOC in the headspace over the cleaning material shall be determined by SCAQMD Method 313 [Determination of Presence of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in a Headspace] contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual.

    The presence of VOC in liquid cleaning materials shall be determined by SCAQMD Method 308 (Quantitation of Compounds by Gas Chromatography) contained in the SCAQMD "Laboratory Methods of Analysis for Enforcement Samples" manual.

  7. Determination of Efficiency of Emission Control System
  8. (A) The efficiency of the collection device of the emission control system as specified in subparagraph (c)(5)(A) shall be determined by the USEPA method cited in 55 Federal Register 26865, June 29, 1990, or any other alternative method approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the California Air Resources Board, and the District.

    (B) The efficiency of the control device of the emission control system as specified in subparagraph (c)(5)(A) and the VOC content in the control device exhaust gases, measured and calculated as carbon, shall be determined by USEPA Test Methods 25, 25A, or SCAQMD Method 25.1 (Determination of Total Gaseous Non-Methane Organic Emissions as Carbon) as applicable. USEPA Test Method 18, or ARB Method 422 shall be used to determine emissions of exempt compounds.

  9. Multiple Test Methods
  10. When more than one test method or set of test methods is specified for any testing, a violation of any requirement of this rule established by any one of the specified test methods or set of test methods shall constitute a violation of this rule.

  11. All test methods referenced in this section shall be the most recently approved version.

(g) Rule 442 Applicability

Any solvent, solvent cleaning activity, solvent cleaning unit operation, or person, which is exempt from all or a portion of this rule except paragraph (c)(7), shall be subject to the applicable requirements of the applicable Regulation XI source specific rule or Rule 442 - Usage of Solvent.

(h) Exemptions

  1. The following solvent cleaning operations or activities are not subject to any provision of this rule:

    (A) Cleaning carried out in batch-loaded cold cleaners, open-top vapor degreasers, conveyorized degreasers, or film cleaning machines which are regulated under Rule 1122 - Solvent Degreasers.

    (B) Cleaning operations subject to Rules 1102 - Petroleum Solvent Dry Cleaners, and 1421 - Control of Perchloroethylene Emissions from Dry Cleaning Operations.

    (C) Cleaning operations subject to Rule 1164 - Semiconductor Manufacturing.

    (D) Cleaning operations subject to Rule 1124 - Aerospace Assembly and Component Manufacturing Operations, except coating application equipment cleaning, and storage and disposal of VOC-containing materials used in solvent cleaning operations.

    (E) Cleaning operations subject to Rule 1141 - Control of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Resin Manufacturing, and Rule 1141.1 - Coatings and Ink Manufacturing.

    (F) Janitorial and institutional cleaning, including graffiti removal.

    (G) Stripping of cured coatings, cured adhesives, and cured inks.

    (H) Cleaning operations using solvents with a water content of 98% or more, by weight.

    (I) Cleaning operations using only Clean Air Solvents specified in a valid Clean Air Solvent Certificate.

  1. Provisions of paragraph (c)(1) shall not apply when carried out for any of the following applications:
  2. (A) Cleaning of solar cells, laser hardware, scientific instruments, and high-precision optics.

    (B) Cleaning for: conducting performance laboratory tests on coatings, adhesives, or inks; research and development programs; and laboratory tests in quality assurance laboratories.

    (C) Cleaning of polycarbonate plastics.

    (D) Cleaning of motor vehicles on application lines subject to Rule 1115 - Motor Vehicle Assembly Line Coating Operations.

  3. Cleaning of the nozzle tips of automated spray equipment systems, except for robotic systems, and cleaning with spray bottles or containers described in subparagraph (c)(2)(B), are not subject to the provisions of paragraph (e)(1).
  4. Cleaning with aerosol products shall not be subject to the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) and paragraph (e)(1) if 160 fluid ounces or less of aerosol product are used per day, per facility.
  5. Cleaning of cotton swabs to remove cottonseed oil before cleaning of high-precision optics shall not be subject to paragraph (c)(1).
  6. Medical device and pharmaceutical facilities may use up to 1.5 gallons per day of solvents that are not in compliance with paragraph (c)(1).
  7. The provisions of subparagraph (c)(1)(C) shall not apply to cleaning of coating and adhesive application processes utilized to manufacture transdermal drug delivery product using less than 3 gallons per day of ethyl acetate averaged over a 30 calendar day period.
  8. The provisions of subparagraph (c)(1)(D) shall not apply to persons facilities using less than 1.5 gallons per day of solvents to clean sterilization indicating ink application equipment.
  9. The requirements of clause (c)(1)(B)(i) shall not apply until January 1, 2001, for field handwipe cleaning operations, provided solvent cleaning products containing no more than 900 grams of VOCs per liter with a VOC composite partial pressure of 20 mm Hg at 68oF are used for field handwipe cleaning operations until such time. Field handwipe cleaning operations means cleaning operations conducted in areas located at least 1000 feet outside the operatorís facility boundary, for the repair of mobile equipment, non-road equipment, and other internal combustion engine driven equipment including, but not limited to, buses, trucks, tractors, forklifts, pumps, and heavy-duty construction equipment.