SDAPCD RULE XI-F NATIONAL EMISS.STANDARDS FOR VINYL CHLORIDE          
LAST REVISED 06/16/78

          
          SUBPART F - National Emission Standards for Vinyl Chloride
                      (Delegation Effective 11/21/77:  Rev. Effective 6/16/78)


               RULE 361.60.   APPLICABILITY

               (a)  This subpart applies to plants which produce:

                    (1)  Ethylene dichloride by reaction of oxygen and
               hydrogen chloride with ethylene,

                    (2)  Vinyl chloride by any process, and/or

                    (3)  One or more polymers containing any fraction of
               polymerized vinyl chloride.

               (b)  This subpart does not apply to equipment used in
          research and development if the reactor used to polymerize the
          vinyl chloride processed in the equipment has a capacity of no
          more than 50 gallons (189.25 liters).

               (c)  Sections of this subpart other than 361.64(a)(1), (b),
          (c), and (d) do not apply to equipment used in research and
          development if the reactor used to polymerize the vinyl chloride
          processed in the equipment has a capacity of greater than 50
          gallons (189.25 liters) and no more than 1100 gallons (4163.5
          liters).


               RULE 361.61.   DEFINITIONS

               As used in this subpart, all items not defined herein shall
          have the meaning given them in Subpart A of this regulation.

                    (1)  "Bulk Resin" means a resin which is produced by a
               polymerization process in which no water is used.

                    (2)  "Dispersion Resin" means a resin manufactured in
               such a way as to form fluid dispersions when dispersed in a
               plasticizer or plasticizer/diluent mixtures.

                    (3)  "Emergency Relief Discharge" is a discharge which
               could not have been avoided by taking measures to prevent
               the discharge.

                    (4)  "Ethylene Dichloride Plant" includes any plant
               which produces ethylene dichloride by reaction of oxygen and
               hydrogen chloride with ethylene.

                    (5)  "Ethylene Dichloride Purification" includes any
               part of the process of ethylene dichloride production which
               follows ethylene dichloride formation and in which finished
               ethylene dichloride is produced.

                    (6)  "Grade of Resin" means the subdivision of resin
               classification with no further subdivision.

                    (7)  "In Vinyl Chloride Service" means that a piece of
               equipment contains or contacts either a liquid that is at
               least 10 percent by weight vinyl chloride or a gas that is
               at least 10 percent by volume vinyl chloride.

                    (8)  "Inprocess Wastewater" means any water which,
               during manufacturing or processing, comes into direct
               contact with vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, or
               results from the production or use of any raw material,
               intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste
               product containing vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but
               which has not been discharged to a wastewater treatment
               process or discharged untreated as wastewater.

                    (9)  "Latex Resin" means a resin which is produced by a
               polymerization process which initiates from free radical
               catalyst sites and is solid undried.

                    (10) "Polyvinyl Chloride Plant" includes any plant
               where vinyl chloride alone or in combination with other
               materials is polymerized.

                    (11) "Reactor" includes any vessel in which vinyl
               chloride is partially or totally polymerized into polyvinyl
               chloride.

                    (12) "Reactor Opening Loss" means the emissions of
               vinyl chloride occurring when a reactor is vented to the
               atmosphere for any purpose other than an emergency relief
               discharge.

                    (13) "Run" means the net period of time during which an
               emission sample is collected.

                    (14) "Slip Gauge" means a gauge which has a probe that
               moves through the gas/liquid interface in a storage or
               transfer vessel and indicates the level of vinyl chloride in
               the vessel by the physical state of the material the gauge
               discharges.

                    (15) "Standard Operating Procedure" means a formal
               written procedure officially adopted by the plant owner or
               operator and available on a routine basis to those persons
               responsible for carrying out the procedure.

                    (16) "Stripper" includes any vessel in which residual
               vinyl chloride is removed from polyvinyl chloride resin,
               except bulk resin, in the slurry form by the use of heat
               and/or vacuum.  In the case of bulk resin, stripper includes
               any vessel which is used to remove residual vinyl chloride
               from polyvinyl chloride resin immediately following the
               polymerization step  in the plant process flow.

                    (17) "Type of Resin" means the broad classification of
               resin referring to the basic manufacturing process for
               producing that resin, including, but not limited to, the
               suspension, dispersion, latex, bulk, and solution processes.

                    (18) "Vinyl Chloride Plant" includes any plant which
               produces vinyl chloride by any process.

                    (19) "Vinyl Chloride Purification" includes any part of
               the process of vinyl chloride production which follows vinyl
               chloride formation and in which finished vinyl chloride is
               produced.

                    (20) "Wastewater Treatment Process" includes any
               process which modifies characteristics such as BOD, COD,
               TSS, and pH, usually for the purpose of meeting effluent
               guidelines and standards:  it does not include any process
               the purpose of which is to remove vinyl chloride from water
               to meet requirements of this subpart.


               RULE 361.62.   EMISSION STANDARD   (Rev. Effective 6/16/78)

               (a)  Except for an emergency relief discharge, vinyl
          chloride emission shall not exceed 10 ppm in all exhaust gases
          discharged to the atmosphere from the following equipment:

                    (1)  Equipment used in ethylene dichloride purification

                    (2)  Equipment used in vinyl chloride formation and/or
               purification

                    (3)  Reactor in polyvinyl chloride plant

                    (4)  Stripper in polyvinyl chloride plant

                    (5)  Mixing, weighing, or holding container in vinyl
               chloride service

                    (6)  Monomer recovery system

               The provisions of this subdivision do not apply to equipment
          that has been opened, is out of operation, and met the
          requirement of Rule 361.62(f)(6)(i) before being opened.

               (b)  Oxychlorination Reactor; Ethylene Dichloride Plants

               Except for an emergency relief discharge, emissions of vinyl
          chloride to the atmosphere from any oxychlorination reactor shall
          not exceed 0.0002 lb/lb (0.2 g/kg) of the 100 percent ethylene
          dichloride product from the reactor.

               (c)  Reactor Opening Loss

               Vinyl chloride loss from a reactor opening shall not exceed
          0.00002 lb/lb (0.02 g/kg) of polyvinyl chloride product, with the
          product determined on a dry solid basis.  In the bulk process,
          the product means the gross product of prepolymerization and
          postpolymerization.

               The provisions of this subdivision 'C' apply to any vessel
          which is used as a reactor or, a reactor and a stripper.

               (d)  Sources following the Stripper(s) and Reactor(s)

               The following requirements apply to emissions of vinyl
          chloride to the atmosphere from the combination of all sources
          following the stripper(s) [or the reactor(s) if the plant has no
          stripper(s)] in the plant process flow including but not limited
          to, centrifuges, concentrators, blend tanks, filters, dryers,
          conveyor air discharges, baggers, storage, containers, and
          inprocess wastewater:

                    (1)  In polyvinyl chloride plants using stripping
               technology to control vinyl chloride emissions, the weighted
               average residual vinyl chloride concentration in all grades
               of polyvinyl chloride resin processed through the stripping
               operation on each calendar day, measured immediately after
               the stripping operation is completed, shall not exceed:

                         (i)  2000 ppm for polyvinyl chloride dispersion
                    resins, excluding latex resins;

                         (ii) 400 ppm for all other polyvinyl chloride
                    resins, including latex resins, averaged separately for
                    each type of resin; or

                    (2)  In polyvinyl chloride plants controlling vinyl
               chloride emissions with technology other than stripping or
               in addition to stripping, emissions of vinyl chloride to the
               atmosphere shall not exceed:

                         (i)  0.002 lb/lb (2 g/kg) product from the
                    stripper(s) [or reactor(s) if the plant has no
                    stripper(s)] for dispersion polyvinyl chloride resins,
                    excluding latex resins, with the product determined on
                    a dry solids basis; or

                         (ii) 0.0004 lb/lb (0.4 g/kg) product from the
                    stripper(s) [or reactor(s) if the plant has not
                    stripper(s)] for all other polyvinyl chloride resins,
                    including latex resins, with the product determined on
                    a dry solids basis.

               (e)  Relief Valve Discharge

               Except for an emergency relief discharge, there is to be no
          discharge to the atmosphere from any relief valve on any
          equipment in vinyl chloride service.  Within 10 days of any
          relief valve discharge, the owner or operator of the source from
          which the relief valve discharge occurs shall submit to the
          Control Officer a report in writing containing nature and cause
          of the discharge, the date and time of the discharge, the
          approximate total vinyl chloride loss during the discharge, the
          method used for determining the vinyl chloride loss, the action
          that was taken to prevent the discharge, and measures adopted to
          prevent future discharges.

               (f)  Fugitive Emissions Sources  (Rev. Effective 6/16/78)

                    (1)  Loading and Unloading Lines

               Vinyl chloride emissions from loading and unloading lines in
          vinyl chloride service which are opened to the atmosphere after
          each loading or unloading operation are to be minimized as
          follows:

                         (i)  After each loading or unloading operation and
                    before opening a loading or unloading line to the
                    atmosphere, the quantity of vinyl chloride in all parts
                    of each loading or unloading line that are to be opened
                    to the atmosphere is to be reduced so that the parts
                    combined contain no greater than 0.0038 m3 (0.13 ft3)
                    of vinyl chloride, at standard temperature and
                    pressure; and

                         (ii) Any vinyl chloride removed from a loading or
                    unloading line in accordance with Subsection (f)(1)(i)
                    of this rule is to be ducted through a control system
                    from which the concentration of vinyl chloride in the
                    exhaust gases does not exceed 10 ppm or equivalent as
                    provided in Rule 361.66.

                    (2)  Slip Gauges

               During loading and unloading operations, the vinyl chloride
          emissions from each slip gauge in vinyl chloride service are to
          be minimized by ducting any vinyl chloride discharged from the
          slip gauge through a control system from which the concentration
          of vinyl chloride in the exhaust gases does not exceed 10 ppm, or
          equivalent as provided in Rule 361.66.

                    (3)  Pump, Compressor, and Agitator Seals

                         (i)  Rotating pumps or compressors:  Vinyl
                    chloride emissions from seals on all rotating pumps or
                    compressors in vinyl chloride service are to be
                    minimized by installing sealless pumps, compressors or
                    pumps with double mechanical seals, or equivalent as
                    provided in Rule 361.66.

                         (ii) Reciprocating pumps or compressors:  Vinyl
                    chloride emissions from seals on all reciprocating
                    pumps and compressors in vinyl chloride service are to
                    be minimized by installing double outboard seals, or
                    equivalent as provided in Rule 361.66.

                         (iii) Agitator:  Vinyl chloride emissions from
                    seals on all agitators in vinyl chloride service are to
                    be minimized by installing agitators with double
                    mechanical seals, or equivalent as provided in Rule
                    361.66.

                         For purposes of Subsection (f)(3), if double
                    mechanical seals or double outboard seals are used,
                    vinyl chloride emissions from the seals are to be
                    minimized by maintaining the pressure between the two
                    seals so that any leak that occurs is into the
                    compressor, pump or agitated vessel; by ducting any
                    vinyl chloride between the two seals through a control
                    system from which the concentration of vinyl chloride
                    in the exhaust gases shall not exceed 10 pm; or
                    equivalent as provided in Rule 361.66.

                    (4)  Leakage from Relief Valves

                    Vinyl chloride emissions due to leakage from each
               relief valve on equipment in vinyl chloride service are to
               be minimized by installing a rupture disk between the
               equipment and the relief valve, by connecting the relief
               valve discharge to a process line or recovery system, or
               equivalent as provided in Rule 361.66.

                    (5)  Manual Venting of Gases

                    Except as provided in Rule 361.62(e), all gases which
               are manually vented from equipment in vinyl chloride service
               are to be ducted through a control system from which the
               concentration of vinyl chloride in the exhaust gases shall
               not exceed 10 ppm; or equivalent as provided in the Rule
               361.66.

                    (6)  Opening of Equipment

                    Vinyl chloride emissions from opening of equipment
               (including loading or unloading lines that are not opened to
               the atmosphere after each loading or unloading operation)
               are to be minimized as follows:

                         (i)  Before opening any equipment for any reason,
                    the quantity of vinyl chloride is to be reduced so that
                    the equipment contains no more than 2.0 percent by
                    volume vinyl chloride or 25 gallons (94.62 liters) of
                    vinyl chloride, whichever is larger, at standard
                    temperature and pressure; and

                         (ii) Any vinyl chloride removed from the equipment
                    in accordance with Subsection (f)(6)(i) of this rule is
                    to be ducted through a control system from which the
                    concentration of vinyl chloride in the exhaust gases
                    does not exceed 10 ppm, or equivalent as provided in
                    Rule 36.166.

                    (7)  Samples

                    Unused portions of samples containing at least 10
               percent by weight vinyl chloride are to be returned to the
               process, and sampling techniques are to be such that sample
               containers in vinyl chloride service are purged into a
               closed process system.


                    (8)  Leak Detection and Elimination

                    Vinyl chloride emissions due to leaks from equipment in
               vinyl chloride service are to be minimized by instituting
               and implementing a formal leak detection and elimination
               program.  The owner or operator shall submit a description
               of the program to the Control Officer for approval.  The
               program is to be submitted within 45 days of the effective
               date of these regulations,  unless a waiver of compliance is
               granted under Rule 361.11.  If a waiver of compliance is
               granted, the program is to be submitted on a date scheduled
               by the Control Officer.  Approval of a program will be
               granted by the Control Officer provided he finds:

                         (i)  It includes a reliable and accurate vinyl
                    chloride monitoring system for detection of major leaks
                    and identification of the general area of the plant
                    where a leak is located.  A vinyl chloride monitoring
                    system means a device which obtains air samples from
                    one or more points on a continuous sequential basis and
                    analyzes the samples with gas chromatography or, if the
                    owner or operator assumes that all hydrocarbons
                    measured are vinyl chloride, with infrared
                    spectrophotometry flame ion detection, or an equivalent
                    or alternative method.

                         (ii) It includes a reliable and accurate portable
                    hydrocarbon detector to be used routinely to find small
                    leaks and to pinpoint the major leaks indicated by the
                    vinyl chloride monitoring system.  A portable hydroca
                    rbon detector means a device which measures
                    hydrocarbons with a sensitivity of at least 10 ppm and
                    is of such design and size that it can be used to
                    measure emissions from localized points.

                         (iii)It provides for an acceptable calibration and
                    maintenance schedule for the vinyl chloride monitoring
                    system and portable hydrocarbon detector.  For the
                    vinyl chloride monitoring system, a daily span check is
                    to be conducted with a concentration of vinyl chloride
                    equal to the concentration defined as a leak according
                    to Subsection (f)(8)(vi) of this rule.  The calibration
                    is to be done with either:

                              (A)  a calibration gas mixture prepared from
                         the gases specified in Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of
                         Test Method 106, Appendix B to 40 CFR 61, and in
                         accordance with Section 7.1 of Test Method 106, or

                              (B)  a calibration gas cylinder containing
                         the appropriate concentration of vinyl chloride.
                         The gas composition of the calibration gas
                         cylinder standard is to have been certified by the
                         manufacturer.  The manufacturer must have
                         recommended a maximum  shelf life for each
                         cylinder so that the concentration does not change
                         greater than 5 percent from the certified value.

                              The date of gas cylinder preparation,
                         certified vinyl chloride concentration and
                         recommended maximum shelf life must have been
                         affixed to the cylinder before shipment from the
                         manufacturer to the buyer.  If a gas chromatograph
                         is used as the vinyl chloride monitoring system,
                         these gas mixtures may be directly used to prepare
                         a chromatograph calibration curve as described in
                         Section 7.3 of Test Method 106.  The requirements
                         in Sections 5.2.3.1 and 5.2.3.2 of Test Method 106
                         for certification of cylinder standards and for
                         establishment and verification of calibration
                         standards are to be followed.

                         (iv) The location and number of points to be
                    monitored and the frequency of monitoring provided for
                    in the program are acceptable when they are compared
                    with the number of pieces of equipment in vinyl
                    chloride service and the size and physical layout of
                    the plant.

                         (v)  It contains an acceptable plan of action to
                    be taken when a leak is detected.

                         (vi) It contains a definition of leak which is
                    acceptable when compared with the background
                    concentrations of vinyl chloride in the areas of the
                    plant to be monitored by the vinyl chloride monitoring
                    system.  Measurements of background concentrations of
                    vinyl chloride in the areas of the plant to be
                    monitored by the vinyl chloride monitoring system are
                    to be included with the description of the program.
                    The definition of leak for a given plant may vary among
                    the different areas within the plant and is also to
                    change over time as background concentrations in the
                    plant are reduced.

                    (9)  Inprocess Wastewater:

                    Vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere from
               inprocess wastewater are to be reduced as follows:

                         (i)  The concentration of vinyl chloride in each
                    inprocess wastewater stream containing greater than 10
                    ppm vinyl chloride measured immediately as it leaves a
                    piece of equipment and before being mixed with any
                    other inprocess wastewater stream is to be reduced to
                    no more than 10 ppm by weight before being mixed with
                    any other inprocess wastewater stream which contains
                    less than 10 ppm vinyl chloride; before being exposed
                    to the atmosphere, before being discharged to a
                    wastewater treatment process; or before being
                    discharged untreated as a wastewater.  This section
                    does apply to water which is used to displace vinyl
                    chloride from equipment before it is opened to the
                    atmosphere in accordance with Rule 361.62(c) or
                    Subsection (f)(6) of this rule, but does not apply to
                    water which is used to wash out equipment after the
                    equipment has already been opened to the atmosphere in
                    accordance with Rule 361.62(c) of Subsection (f)(6) of
                    this rule.

                         (ii) Any vinyl chloride removed from the inprocess
                    wastewater in accordance with Subsection (f)(9)(i) of
                    this section is to be ducted through a control system
                    from which the concentration of vinyl chloride in the
                    exhaust gases does not exceed 10 ppm, or equivalent as
                    provided in Rule 361.66.

               (g)  The requirements of this rule shall be incorporated
          into a standard operating procedure, and made available upon
          request for inspection by the Control Officer.


               RULE 361.63.   [RESERVED]


               RULE 361.64.   [RESERVED]


               RULE 361.65.   [RESERVED]


               RULE 361.66.   EQUIVALENT EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES

               Upon written application from an owner or operator, the
          Control Officer may approve use of equipment or procedures which
          have been demonstrated to his satisfaction to be equivalent in
          terms of reducing vinyl chloride emissions to the atmosphere to
          those prescribed for compliance with a specific rule of this
          Subpart F.  For an existing source, any request for using an
          equivalent method as the initial measure of control is to be
          submitted to the Control Officer within 30 days of the effective
          date.  For a new source, any request for using an equivalent
          method is to be submitted to the Control Officer with the
          application for approval of construction of modification required
          by Rule 361.07.


               RULE 361.67.   EMISSIONS TESTS  (Rev. Effective 6/16/78)

               (a)  Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under
          Rule 361.13, the owner or operator of a source to which this
          Subpart F applies shall test emissions from the source:

                    (1)  Within 90 days of the effective date in the case
               of an existing source or a new source which has an initial
               startup date preceding the effective date; or

                    (2)  Within 90 days of startup in the case of a new
               source, initial startup of which occurs after the effective
               date.

               (b)  The owner or operator shall notify the Control Officer
          at least 30 days prior to an emission test.

               (c)  Any emission test is to be conducted while the
          equipment being tested is operating at the maximum production
          rate at which the equipment will be operated and under other
          relevant conditions as may be specified by the Control Officer
          based on representative performance of the source.

               (d)  Each emission test is to consist of three runs.  For
          the purpose of determining emissions, the average of results of
          all runs is to apply.  The average is to be computed on a time
          weighted basis.

               (e)  All samples should be analyzed within 24 hours, but in
          no case in excess of 72 hours of sample collection.  Vinyl
          chloride emissions are to be determined within 30 days after the
          emission test.  The owner or operator shall report the
          determinations to the Control Officer by a registered letter
          dispatched before the close of the next business day following
          the determination.

               (f)  The owner or operator shall retain at the plant and
          make available, upon request for inspection by the Administrator
          or Control Officer, for a minimum of 2 years records.

               (g)  The owner or operator shall use test methods specified
          in Part 61, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section
          61.17(g) to determine vinyl chloride emissions from any source
          for which an emission limit is prescribed in this Subpart F.


               RULE 361.68.   EMISSION MONITORING

               The owner or operator subject to the provisions of this
          subpart shall monitor emissions as set forth in Part 61, Title
          40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 61.68.


               RULE 361.69.   [RESERVED]


               RULE 361.70.   REPORTING

               In addition to the reporting requirement of Rule 361.10, an
          owner or operator of any source to which this Subpart F applies
          shall submit to the Control Officer on September 15 and March 15
          of each year a report in writing containing the information as
          required in Part 61, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations,
          Section 61.70.


               RULE 361.71.   RECORDKEEPING

               (a)  The owner or operator of any source to which this
          Subpart F applies shall retain the following information at the
          source and make it available for inspection by the Control
          Officer for a minimum of 2 years;

                    (1)  A record of the leaks detected by the vinyl
               chloride monitoring system as required by Rule 361.62(f)(8),
               including the concentrations of vinyl chloride as measured,
               analyzed, and recorded by the vinyl chloride detector, the
               location of each measurement and the date and approximate
               time of each measurement.

                    (2)  A record of the leaks detected during routine
               monitoring with the portable hydrocarbon detector and the
               action taken to repair the leaks, as required by Rule 361.62
               (f)(8), including a brief statement explaining the location
               and cause of each leak detected with the portable
               hydrocarbon detector, the date and  time of the leak and any
               action taken to eliminate the leak measured in accordance
               with Rule 361.68.

                    (3)  For the relief discharges from reactors subject to
               the provisions of Rule 361.62(e), a daily operating record
               for each reactor, including pressures and temperatures.