SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY UNIFIED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT
 

RULE 4354 GLASS MELTING FURNACES
(Adopted September 14, 1994; Amended April 16, 1998)

1.0 Purpose
The purpose of this rule is to limit emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from glass melting furnaces.

2.0 Applicability
The provisions of this rule shall apply to any glass melting furnace that is part of a major NOx source.

3.0 Definitions

3.1 Block 24-hour Average: the arithmetic average of the hourly NOx emission rates of a furnace as measured over 24 one-hour periods, daily, from 12:00 AM to 11:59 PM, excluding periods of system calibration.

3.2 Container glass: any glass manufactured by pressing, blowing in molds, drawing, rolling, or casting which is used as a container.

3.3 Carbon Monoxide (CO): emissions of carbon monoxide, corrected to 8.0 percent oxygen on a dry basis, in parts per million by volume (ppmv).

3.4 Fiberglass: material consisting of fine filaments of glass that are combined in yarn and woven or spun into fabrics, or that are used in masses as thermal or acoustical insulating products for the construction industry.

3.5 Flat glass: any glass produced by the float, sheet, rolled, or plate glass process which is used in windows, windshields, or plate glass.

3.6 Furnace Battery: two or more glass melting furnaces that exhaust to a common stack.

3.7 Furnace Rebuild: a cold tank repair which is commenced after the end of a furnace campaign period or expected life cycle of a furnace. For the purpose of compliance deadline in Section 7.1, the effective date of a furnace rebuild is the date of the start of the furnace shutdown.

3.8 Idling: the operation of a furnace at less than 25 percent of the permitted production capacity or fuel use capacity as stated on the Permit to Operate.

3.9 Major NOx Source: any major source as defined in Rule 2201 (New and Modified Stationary Source Review Rule), with a potential to emit 50 tons or more per year of NOx.

3.10 Multiple Furnaces: two or more glass melting furnaces at a single facility that do not exhaust to a common stack.

3.11 NOx: the sum of oxides of nitrogen in the flue gas, collectively expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ).

3.12 Parts Per Million by Volume (ppmv): the ratio of the number of gas molecules of a given species or group of species, to the number of millions of a total gas molecules.

3.13 Permitted Production Capacity: the maximum pull rate as stated in the Permit to Operate.

3.14 Pull Rate: the amount of glass coming out of a glass melting furnace, expressed in short tons per day.

3.15 Rolling 30-day Average: the arithmetic average of the daily emission rates of a furnace over a contiguous 30-day period, excluding periods of system calibration.

3.16 Shutdown: the period of time during which a glass melting furnace is purposely allowed to cool from operating temperature and molten glass is removed from the tank for the purpose of a furnace rebuild.

3.17 Start-up: the period of time, after initial construction or a furnace rebuild, during which a glass melting furnace is heated to operating temperature, and brought to stabilization. Start-up shall not exceed:

3.17.1 - 90 days following initial glass pull for a flat glass or container glass furnace,

3.17.2  - 30 days following initial glass pull for a fiberglass furnace, and

3.17.3  - 180 days following initial glass pull, or 30 days after the glass pull rate reaches 60 percent of the furnace’s glass production capacity, whichever occurs later, for any furnace that uses a NOx control technique that is:

3.17.3.1 innovative,
3.17.3.2 not in common use,
3.17.3.3 not readily available from a commercial supplier, or
3.17.3.4 funded as original research by a public agency.
3.18 Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): defined in Rule 1020 (Definitions).
4.0 Exemptions
4.1 Except for Section 6.5, the provisions of this rule shall not apply to electric glass melting furnaces where all the heat is supplied by an electric current from electrodes submerged in the molten glass, except that heat may be supplied by other fuels for start-up when the furnace contains no molten glass.

4.2 The requirements of Section 5.0 shall not apply during periods of start-up, shutdown or idling. The period of exemption shall apply from the beginning of operational changes required to initiate idling, shutdown, or start-up. The owner shall comply with the requirements of Section 6.7 when performing such operations.

5.0 Requirements
5.1 The owner of any glass melting furnace shall not operate a furnace in such a manner that results in NOx, CO and VOC emissions exceeding the limits in Table 1. The compliance deadline for these emission limits are specified in Section 7.0.
Table 1
NOx, CO, and VOC Emission Limits
 
 
Tier 1 
Emission Limits 
(See Section 7.1 
for compliance schedules.)
Tier 2 
Emission Limits
(See Section 7.1 
for compliance schedules.)
Type of Furnace
NOx 
(lb/ton of glass pulled)
See Sections 5.2 and 8.1
NOx 
(lb/ton of glass pulled)
CO (ppmv)
See Sections 5.2 and 8.2
VOC (ppmv)
See Sections 
5.2 and 8.2
Container Glass or
Fiberglass
5.5
4.0 lb/ton of glass pulled on a block 
24-hour average
300
20
 Flat Glass
 See Section 5.3
9.2 lb/ton of glass pulled on a block 
24-hour average
and
7.0 lb/ton of glass pulled on a rolling 
30-day average
 300
 20
 
5.2 Compliance Determination
5.2.1 The emissions measured for compliance with Tier 1 NOx limits and Tier 2 CO and VOC limits shall be averaged over a three hour period in accordance with the applicable test methods in Section 6.5.1, or, if a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) or an alternate emission monitoring method is used, the applicable requirements of Sections 6.6.1 and 6.6.2, respectively.

5.2.2 Any source testing result, CEMS or alternate emission monitoring method averaged value exceeding the applicable emission limits in Section 5.1 shall constitute a violation of the rule.

5.3 The Tier 1 NOx emission limit for flat glass furnaces shall be calculated using the following equation:
 
5.4 In lieu of each furnace complying individually with the Tier 2 emission limits in Section 5.1, the owner of a furnace battery or multiple furnaces may comply with this rule according to Section 9.0.

5.5 Effective on and after the full compliance date for Tier 2 emission limits, the owner of any glass melting furnace shall implement a NOx CEMS or a NOx alternate emissions monitoring method on each furnace, that is approved by the APCO, and that meets the requirements of Sections 6.6. For a furnace battery, a single CEMS or alternate emissions monitoring method may be used to determine the total NOx emissions from all the furnaces provided the emission measurements are made at the common stack.

6.0 Administrative Requirements

6.1 Permitted Production Capacity and Fuel Use Capacity
6.1.1 All Furnaces: In order to qualify for the exemption in Section 4.2 and in order to determine the validity of a source test in accordance with Section 6.5.2,
6.1.1.1 each glass melting furnace’s Permit to Operate shall include the permitted glass production capacity or the furnace’s fuel capacity as a permit condition; or
6.1.1.2 the owner of a glass melting furnace shall submit a complete application for Authority to Construct, to include each furnace’s permitted glass production capacity or the furnace’s fuel capacity as a permit condition, by July 16, 1998, and shall implement said Authority to Construct within 30 days of issuance by the APCO.
6.1.2 Flat Glass Furnaces: In order to determine compliance with Section 5.1 Tier 1 NOx limits,
6.1.2.1 each flat glass furnace’s Permit to Operate shall include the permitted glass production capacity as a permit condition; or
6.1.2.2 the owner of a flat glass melting furnaces shall submit a complete application for Authority to Construct, to include each furnace’s permitted glass production capacity, by July 16, 1998, and shall implement said Authority to Construct within 30 days of issuance by the APCO.
6.2 Emission Control Plan (ECP)
The owner of any glass melting furnace subject to the provisions of this rule shall submit to the APCO an ECP in accordance with the compliance schedule in Section 7.1 which identifies all actions to be taken to satisfy the requirements of Section 5.0. Such plan shall indicate the expected date of the next furnace rebuild after January 1, 1999, identify the type of emission controls, CEMS or alternate emission monitoring method to be applied to each glass melting furnace and a construction schedule. The method used for determining pull rate shall be submitted. If the pull rate calculation method is changed, the new calculation method shall be submitted within 30 days from the date of such change. If a furnace is already achieving Section 5.1 Tier 2 emission limits prior to the next furnace rebuild after January 1, 1997, the ECP shall include CEMS or alternate emission monitoring data, or source tests results that are sufficient to demonstrate compliance with all the requirements of this rule.
6.3 Recordkeeping
6.3.1 Until the full compliance date for Tier 2 emission limits specified in Section 7.1, the owner of any glass melting furnace subject to the provisions of this rule shall maintain an operating log for each furnace that includes: on a monthly basis, the total hours of operation; type and quantity of fuel used in each furnace; and the quantity of glass pulled. The owner shall maintain records of source tests and operating parameters established during initial source test, maintenance, repair, malfunction, idling, shutdown, and start-up. This information shall be made available on site during normal business hours from Monday through Friday for a period of five years, and submitted to the APCO upon request.

6.3.2 Effective on and after the full compliance date for Tier 2 emission limits specified in Section 7.1, the owner of any glass melting furnace shall maintain the records specified in Sections 6.3.2.1, 6.3.2.2, and 6.3.2.3 for a period of five years, make them available on site during normal business hours from Monday through Friday, and submit them to the APCO upon request.

6.3.2.1 Daily records of the total hours of operation, type and quantity of fuel used in each furnace, and/or the quantity of glass pulled from each furnace.
6.3.2.2 Daily records of NOx emission rate in lb/ton of glass pulled.
6.3.2.3 Records of source tests and operating parameters established during initial source test, maintenance and repair, malfunction, and idling, start-up and shutdown
6.4 Compliance Source Testing
Each glass melting furnace or a furnace battery shall be source tested at least once every calendar year, but not more than every 18 months and not sooner than every 6 months to demonstrate compliance with the applicable requirements of Section 5.0.
6.5 Test Methods
6.5.1 Compliance with the requirements of Section 5.0 shall be determined in accordance with the following source test procedures or their equivalents as approved by the USEPA, CARB, and the APCO:
6.5.1.1 NOx emission rate (Heat input basis) - USEPA Method 19.
6.5.1.2 Oxides of nitrogen - USEPA Method 7E, or CARB Method 100.
6.5.1.3 Carbon monoxide (ppmv) - USEPA Method 10, or CARB Method 100.
6.5.1.4 Volatile Organic Compound (ppmv) - USEPA Method 25A expressed in terms of carbon.
6.5.1.5 Stack gas oxygen, carbon dioxide, excess air, and dry molecular weight - USEPA Method 3 or 3A, or CARB Method 100.
6.5.1.6 Stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate - USEPA Method 2.
6.5.2 Source test results shall be representative of operations equal to or greater than 60 percent of the permitted production capacity or fuel use capacity for each furnace as stated in the Permit to Operate.
6.6 Emissions Monitoring Systems
6.6.1. An approved CEMS shall comply the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 51, 40 CFR Parts 60.7 and 60.13, 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix B (Performance Specifications) and Appendix F (Quality Assurance Procedures), and applicable sections of Rule 1080 (Stack Monitoring).

6.6.2 An approved alternate emissions monitoring method shall be capable of determining the furnace emissions on an hourly basis and shall comply with the requirements of 42 FR 54900 (Compliance Assurance Monitoring) and 40 CFR 60.13 (Monitoring Requirements), as applicable.

 
6.7 Exempt Furnaces:  The owner of any glass melting furnace claiming an exemption under Section 4.2 shall notify the APCO by telephone at least 24 hours before initiating idling, shutdown, or start-up. The notification shall include: date and time of the start of the exempt operation, reason for performing the operation, and an estimated completion date. The owner shall notify the APCO by telephone within 24 hours after completion of the operation. The owner claiming an exemption under Section 4.1 or 4.2 shall maintain operating records and/or support documentation necessary to claim exemption. Records shall be maintained for five years, made available on site during normal business hours from Monday through Friday, and submitted to the APCO upon request.

7.0 Compliance Schedule

7.1 Owners of any flat glass, container glass, or fiberglass melting furnace shall demonstrate full compliance with the provisions of this rule not later than the schedules in Table 2.
Table 2
Compliance Schedule
 
Emission Limits
Emission Control Plan (ECP) 
Authority to Construct (ATC) Application
Full Compliance
Tier 1 
3/14/95
3/14/95
5/31/95
Tier 2 
12 months prior to next furnace rebuild after 1/1/99
9 months prior to next furnace rebuild after 1/1/99
Next furnace rebuild after 1/1/99
7.2 As shown in Sections 7.1 the column labeled:
7.2.1 "ECP" identifies the date by which the owner shall submit an Emission Control Plan according to Section 6.2, or Section 9.0.

7.2.2 "ATC Application" identifies the date by which the owner shall submit a complete application for Authority to Construct (ATC) for any necessary modifications to each glass melting furnace.

7.2.3 "Full Compliance" identifies the date by which the owner shall demonstrate that each furnace is in compliance after start-up with the emission limits in Section 5.1 and after which, the owner shall remain in compliance with the applicable emission limits in Section 5.1.

8.0 Calculations
8.1 The NOx emission rate in ppmv shall be converted to lb/hr by using the appropriate conversion equations in CARB Method 100, USEPA Method 19, or an equivalent conversion method approved by the APCO. The NOx mass emission rate in lb/hr shall be converted to lb NOx/ton of glass pulled according to the following equation:
8.2 The CO and VOC emission limits specified in Section 5.1 are referenced at dry stack gas conditions and 8.0 percent by volume of stack oxygen. The CO and VOC emission concentrations shall be corrected to 8.0 percent oxygen by using the equation below, or an equivalent correction method that is approved by the APCO.

9.0 Furnace Battery or Multiple Furnaces Control
As an alternative to complying with Section 5.1 Tier 2 NOx emission limits and Section 7.0, the owner of a furnace battery or multiple furnaces shall operate the furnace battery or multiple furnaces pursuant to Sections 9.1 through 9.7. Any violation of the requirements below shall be considered a violation of this rule, and a violation of the aggregated emission limits shall constitute a violation for each furnace for the entire averaging time.

9.1 The owner shall submit an ECP and a complete ATC in accordance with schedules in Section 7.1. The ECP shall:
9.1.1 contain, in addition to the requirements of Section 6.2, all data, records, and other information necessary to determine eligibility of a furnace battery or multiple furnaces for NOx emission control under Section 9.0, including, but not limited to:
9.1.1.1 a list of furnaces subject to the ECP;
9.1.1.2 estimated aggregate emission levels as determined in accordance with Section 9.7; and
9.1.1.3 estimated aggregate glass production rates.
9.1.2 detail the method of recording and verifying daily compliance with the ECP.
9.2 The owner shall submit an updated or modified ECP for approval by the APCO prior to any modification to the furnace(s) which requires an ATC as outlined in Rule 2010 (Permits Required).

9.3 The ECP schedule for achieving reduced NOx emission levels shall be at least as expeditious as the schedule were each furnace to comply individually with the emission limits in Section 5.1 Tier 2 and the compliance schedule in Section 7.1.

9.4 The daily aggregate NOx emissions, as determined in accordance with Section 9.7, shall be no greater than those obtained by controlling each furnace to comply individually with the limits in Section 5.1 Tier 2.

9.5 The owner shall conduct source testing of the furnace according to the requirements of Sections 6.4 and 6.5.2.

9.6 Determination of Compliance

9.6.1 The owner shall calculate and record on a daily basis the aggregated NOx emissions of furnaces which are subject to an ECP. Such records shall be kept for a period of five years. The owner shall notify the APCO of any violation of Section 9.4 within 24 hours. The notification shall include:
9.6.1.1 name and location of the facility
9.6.1.2 identification of furnace(s) causing the exceedances
9.6.1.3 the cause and the expected duration of exceedances
9.6.1.4 calculation of actual NOx, CO and VOC emissions
9.6.1.5 corrective actions and schedules to complete the work.
9.6.2 The owner shall demonstrate compliance with the requirements of Section 9.4 through CEMS data or approved alternate emissions monitoring methods, and source test results.
9.7 Determination of Aggregated NOx Emissions
9.7.1 The aggregated NOx emissions of a furnace battery is the NOx emissions as measured at the common stack divided by the sum of the daily glass pulled from each furnace.

9.7.2 The aggregated NOx emissions of multiple furnaces is the sum of the daily NOx emissions of each furnace divided by the sum of the daily glass pulled from each furnace.