SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY UNIFIED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT


RULE 4703 STATIONARY GAS TURBINES

(Adopted August 18, 1994; Amended March 16, 1995; Amended February 15, 1996; Amended October 16, 1997)

1.0 Purpose
The purpose of this rule is to limit oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from stationary gas turbine systems.

2.0 Applicability

2.1 The provisions of this rule apply to all stationary gas turbine systems with ratings equal to or greater than 0.3 megawatt (MW), except as provided in Section 4.0.

2.2 The requirements of this rule shall not constitute applicable State Implementation Plan requirements pursuant to Section 182(f) of the federal Clean Air Act for units located west of Interstate Highway 5 in Fresno, Kern, or Kings county. This section does not relieve owners/operators from complying with any applicable provision of this rule.


3.0 Definitions

3.1 Auxiliary Burner: any fuel burning device that increases the heat content of exhaust gas from a gas turbine. Duct burners, fired waste heat boilers, and fired heat recovery steam generators are considered auxiliary burners.

3.2 Compliance Limit: allowable NOx or carbon monoxide (CO) emissions (ppm by volume).

3.3 Control System Operating Parameters: operating parameters that the APCO deems necessary to analyze when determining compliance, such as ammonia and exhaust gas flow rates and exhaust gas temperature for selective catalytic reduction; or humidity, water injection rate, exhaust gas flow rate and temperature for water injection.

3.4 Dry Low-NOx Combustion Technology: any turbine combustor design which uses multiple staging, air/fuel premixing or other modifications to achieve lower levels of NOx emissions as compared to conventional combustors.

3.5 Emergency Standby Unit: a stationary gas turbine system that operates only as a mechanical or electrical power source for a facility when the primary power source for a facility has been rendered inoperable due to failure beyond the reasonable control of the operator, except due to power interruption pursuant to an interruptable power supply agreement. Electricity generated by such unit cannot be sold.

3.6 Functionally Identical Replacement: defined in Rule 2201 (New and Modified Stationary Source Review Rule).

3.7 Gas Turbine: an internal combustion engine consisting of a compressor, a combustor, and a power turbine, that is gas and/or liquid fueled, with or without power augmentation. Two or more gas turbines powering one shaft shall be treated as one gas turbine.

3.8 HHV: higher heating value of fuel.

3.9 LHV: lower heating value of fuel.

3.10 Major Overhaul: taking a stationary gas turbine out of service to replace or repair major components of the turbine. Major overhaul does not include taking a stationary gas turbine out of service exclusively to install emission control equipment.

3.11 Measured CO Emissions Concentration: measured carbon monoxide emissions corrected to 15 percent oxygen on a dry basis, ppm.

3.12 Measured NOx Emissions Concentration: measured oxides of nitrogen emissions corrected to 15 percent oxygen on a dry basis, ppm.

3.13 Power Augmentation: an increase in the gas turbine shaft output and/or the decrease in gas turbine fuel consumption by the addition of energy recovered from exhaust heat.

3.14 Public Service Unit: a stationary gas turbine system used to generate electricity for sale or for use in serving the public.

3.15 Rating: the continuous megawatt (MW) rating or mechanical equivalent by a manufacturer for a gas turbine without power augmentation.

3.16 Reduced Load Period: the time during which a gas turbine is operated at less than rated capacity in order to change the position of the exhaust gas diverter gate, not to exceed one hour.

3.17 SCR: Selective catalytic reduction.

3.18 Standard Conditions: defined in Rule 1020 (Definitions).

3.19 Stationary Gas Turbine: a gas turbine that is attached to a foundation, or a portable gas turbine that is operated at a facility for more than 90 days in any 12-month period.

3.20 Stationary Gas Turbine System: a stationary gas turbine, or a stationary gas turbine and the associated auxiliary burner.

3.21 Thermal Stabilization Period: the start up or shut down time necessary to bring the heat recovery steam generator to the proper temperature, not to exceed two hours.

3.22 Unit: a stationary gas turbine system.

4.0 Exemptions

4.1 The provisions of this rule, with the exception of Section 6.1.3, shall not apply to stationary gas turbine systems operated under the following conditions:

4.1.1 Laboratory units used in research and testing for the advancement of gas turbine technology,
4.1.2 Units operated exclusively for firefighting and/or flood control.

4.2 The provisions of this rule, with the exception of Sections 6.1.3, 6.2.5, and 6.5, shall not apply to the following units:

4.2.1 Emergency standby units demonstrated to operate less than 200 hours per calendar year.
4.2.2 Units less than 4 MW in rating and demonstrated to operate less than 877 hours per calendar year.

5.0 Requirements
NOx and CO emissions concentrations measured for compliance with Section 5.0 shall be averaged over a three hour period in accordance with either the applicable test method in Section 6.4, or, if continuous emission monitors are used, the requirements of 40 CFR, Part 60.13.

5.1 NOx Emissions

5.1.1 The owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine system, except for those systems described in Section 5.1.2, shall not operate such unit under load conditions, excluding the thermal stabilization period or reduced load period, which results in the measured NOx emissions concentration exceeding the compliance limit listed below.


Gas includes natural gas, digester gas, and landfill gas.
Oil includes kerosene, jet, and distillate. Sulfur content of oil shall be less than 0.05%.

Where EFF (efficiency) is the higher of EFF1 or EFF2 below. An EFF that is less than 25 shall be assigned a value of 25.

EFF1 is the demonstrated percent efficiency of the gas turbine only, as calculated without consideration of any downstream energy recovery from the actual heat rate (Btu/KW-hr); corrected to HHV and standard conditions, as measured at peak load for that facility.

EFF2 is EFFmfr after correction from LHV to HHV at peak load for that facility. EFFmfr is the manufacturer's continuous rated percent efficiency of the gas turbine with air pollution control equipment at LHV.

5.1.2 The owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine system listed below shall not operate such unit under load conditions, excluding the thermal stabilization period or reduced load period, which results in the measured NOx emissions concentration exceeding the compliance limit listed below.


Gas includes natural gas, digester gas, and landfill gas.
Oil includes kerosene, jet, and distillate. Sulfur content of oil shall be less than 0.05%.


5.2 CO Emissions
The owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine system shall not operate such unit under load conditions, excluding the thermal stabilization period and the reduced load period, which results in the measured CO emissions concentration exceeding the compliance limits listed below:

Stationary Gas Turbine Compliance Limit,
CO ppm at 15% O2
 
Units subject to Section 5.1.1

200

 
General Electric Frame 7

25

 
General Electric Frame 7 with Quiet Combustors

52

 
Solar Saturn 1100 horsepower gas turbine powering centrifugal compressor

250

 

5.3 Emission Reduction Credit and Replacement Provisions

5.3.1 For units subject to Section 5.1.2, only emission reductions in excess of those necessary to comply with the appropriate limits in Section 5.1.1 shall be eligible as emission reduction credits.
5.3.2 For units rated equal to or greater than 2.9 MW and less than 10.0 MW, only emission reductions in excess of those necessary to comply with Section 5.3.2.1 shall be eligible as emission reduction credits.

5.3.2.1 The owner or operator shall not operate such unit under load conditions, excluding the thermal stabilization period or reduced load period, which results in a measured NOx emissions concentration exceeding 25 ppm x EFF/25.

5.3.3 The owner or operator of any functionally identical replacement for a unit rated equal to or greater than 2.9 MW and less than 10.0 MW shall not operate such unit under load conditions, excluding the thermal stabilization period or reduced load period, which results in a measured NOx emissions concentration exceeding 25 ppm x EFF/25.


6.0 Administrative Requirements

6.1 Emission Control Plan
The owner or operator of any existing stationary gas turbine system, unless exempted in Section 6.1.5, shall submit to the APCO for approval an emissions control plan of all actions, including a schedule of increments of progress, which will be taken to comply with the requirements of the applicable emissions limitations in Section 5.0 and compliance schedule in Section 7.0.

6.1.1 Such plan shall contain a list that provides the following for each stationary gas turbine system:

6.1.1.1 Permit or identification number,
6.1.1.2 Name of gas turbine manufacturer,
6.1.1.3 Gas turbine model designation,
6.1.1.4 Rated shaft power output, (MW),
6.1.1.5 Name of auxiliary burner manufacturer,
6.1.1.6 Auxiliary burner model designation,
6.1.1.7 Rated heat input of the auxiliary burner, (MMBtu/hr)
6.1.1.8 Type of liquid fuel and/or type of gaseous fuel,
6.1.1.9 Fuel consumption (cubic feet of gas or gallons of liquid) of turbine and/or auxiliary burner,
6.1.1.10 Hours of operation in the previous one-year period,
6.1.1.11 Heat rate (Btu/KW-hr), corrected to HHV for each type of fueling (liquid/gas),
6.1.1.12 HHV for each fuel.

6.1.2 Such plan shall contain a list of all stationary gas turbine systems to be controlled, identifying the type of emission control to be applied to each unit and documentation showing current emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

6.1.3 Such plan shall contain support documentation for any systems exempt under the provisions of Section 4.0.

6.1.4 Such plan shall identify the compliance schedule for each unit, as specified in Sections 7.1 to 7.5.

6.1.4.1 Each emission control plan for a unit subject to Section 7.2 shall include the owner/operator's overhaul schedule.
6.1.4.2 Each emission control plan for a unit subject to Section 7.3 shall include a statement from the turbine manufacturer continued development of dry low NOx combustion technology, and the date when dry low NOx combustion technology will be commercially available for the turbine being considered for retrofit.


6.1.5 The owner or operator of any existing stationary gas turbine system shall be exempt from the requirements of Section 6.1 provided all such turbines under his ownership or control have NOx and CO emissions limits which are shown on the current Permit to Operate and which do not exceed the applicable NOx and CO emissions limits in Sections 5.1 and 5.2.

6.2 Monitoring and Recordkeeping
The owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine system subject to the provisions of this rule shall perform the following actions.

6.2.1 Install, operate and maintain in calibration, equipment approved by the APCO, that continuously measures and records the following:

6.2.1.1 Control system operating parameters,
6.2.1.2 Elapsed time of operation,
6.2.1.3 For units 10 MW and greater that operated an average of more than 4000 hours per year over the last three years before August 18, 1994, the exhaust gas NOx emissions. The NOx monitoring system shall meet EPA requirements as specified in 40 CFR Part 60 App. B, Spec. 2, or other systems that are acceptable to the EPA. The owner or operator shall submit to the APCO information demonstrating that the emission monitoring system has data gathering and retrieval capability.


6.2.2 Maintain all records for inspection at any time for a period of two years.

6.2.3 Submit to the APCO before issuance of the Permit to Operate, information correlating the control system operating parameters to the associated measured NOx output. This information may be used by the APCO to determine compliance when there is no continuous emission monitoring system for NOx available or when the continuous emission monitoring system is not operating properly.

6.2.4 Maintain a stationary gas turbine system operating log that includes, on a daily basis, the actual local time start-up and stop time, length and reason for reduced load periods, total hours of operation, type and quantity of fuel used (liquid/gas). This information shall be available for inspection at any time for two years from the date of entry.

6.2.5 Maintain a stationary gas turbine system operating log for units exempt under Section 4.2 that includes, on a daily basis, the actual local time start-up and stop time, total hours of operation, and cumulative hours of operation to date for the calendar year. This information shall be available for inspection at any time for two years from the date of entry, and shall be submitted to the APCO at the end of each calendar year in a manner and form approved by the APCO.


6.3 Compliance Testing
Except as provided in Section 6.3.1, the owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine systems subject to the provisions of this rule shall provide source test information annually regarding the exhaust gas NOx and CO concentrations defined in Sections 3.11 and 3.12, and the demonstrated percent efficiency (EFF) of the stationary gas turbine.

6.3.1 The owner or operator of any stationary gas turbine system operating less than 877 hours per year shall provide source test information biennially regarding the exhaust gas NOx and CO concentrations at standard conditions and the percent efficiency (EFF) of the stationary gas turbine.

6.3.2 The owner or operator of any unit with an intermittently operated auxiliary burner shall demonstrate compliance with the auxiliary burner both on and off.


6.4 Test Methods

6.4.1 Oxides of nitrogen emissions for compliance tests shall be determined by using EPA Method 7E or EPA Method 20.

6.4.2 Carbon monoxide emissions for compliance tests shall be determined by using EPA Test Methods 10 or 10B.

6.4.3 Oxygen content of the exhaust gas shall be determined by using EPA Methods 3, 3A, or 20.

6.4.4 HHV and LHV of distillate fuels shall be determined by using:

6.4.4.1 ASTM D240-87, Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, or
6.4.4.2 ASTM D2382-88, Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (High-precision Method).


6.4.5 HHV and LHV of gaseous fuels shall be determined by using:

6.4.5.1 ASTM D3588-91, Standard Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Gaseous Fuels, or
6.4.5.2 ASTM 1826-88, Standard Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter, or
6.4.5.3 ASTM 1945-81, Standard Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography.


6.4.6 Demonstrated percent efficiency of the stationary gas turbine shall be determined using the facility instrumentation for gas turbine fuel consumption and power output. Power output values used to determine gas turbine efficiency shall be either:

6.4.6.1 the electrical power output of the gas turbine, provided the gas turbine generates electricity; or
6.4.6.2 the mechanical power output of the gas turbine, provided the gas turbine does not generate electricity.

6.5 Exempt and Emergency Standby Units

6.5.1 The owner or operator of any unit with an hour-per-year operation limit pursuant to Sections 4.2 or 5.0 must notify the APCO within seven days if the hour-per-year limit is exceeded. Except as provided in Section 6.5.2, if the hour per-year-limit is exceeded, the exemption shall be permanently withdrawn. Within 30 days after the exceedence, the owner or operator must submit a permit application detailing a plan to meet the appropriate compliance limit within 24 months. Included in this permit application, the owner or operator must submit an emission control plan including a schedule of increments of progress for the installation of the required control equipment. This schedule shall be subject to the review and approval of the APCO.

6.5.2 A public service unit operating during a state of emergency, when such emergency is declared by proclamation of the Governor and when the unit is located in the specific geographic location identified in the proclamation, shall be excluded from the hour-per-year limit.

7.0 Compliance Schedule
Except for owners or operators of units subject to Section 7.4, owners or operators of all applicable stationary gas turbine systems shall submit the emission control plan required by Section 6.1 by May 31, 1995. All owner/operators shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 5.0 and 6.0 in accordance with Section 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, or 7.5.

7.1 Section 7.1 applies to units not addressed by Sections 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, or 7.5. The owner/operator of each applicable unit shall,

7.1.1 By August 18, 1996, submit to the APCO a complete application for Authority to Construct for all modifications to each unit.

7.1.2 By August 18, 1998, demonstrate full compliance.

7.2 Section 7.2 applies to any unit not scheduled for major overhaul between August 18, 1996 and August 18, 1998. Section 7.2 does not apply to any unit that will achieve full compliance with the limits in Section 5.0 through the exclusive use of an increased rate of water or steam injection. The owner/operator of each applicable unit shall:

7.2.1 By August 18, 1996, submit a complete application for Authority to Construct.

7.2.2 By August 18, 1998, demonstrate full compliance on at least 62% of the owner/operator's units.

7.2.3 By August 18, 2000 or 30 days after the completion of the next major overhaul following August 18, 1998, whichever comes first, demonstrate full compliance on all remaining units.


7.3 Section 7.3 applies to any unit which was originally designated to be modified with dry low NOx combustion technology, as identified in the emission control plan required by Section 6.1, provided the owner/operator of such unit demonstrates that such technology will not be commercially available by August 18, 1998. The owner/operator of each applicable unit shall,

7.3.1 By February 18, 1998, submit a complete application for Authority to Construct for all modifications to each unit.

7.3.2 By August 18, 2000, demonstrate full compliance.


7.4 Section 7.4 applies to any unit equipped with water or steam injection that will achieve full compliance with the emission limits in Section 5.0 through the exclusive use of an increased rate of water or steam injection. The owner/operator of each applicable unit shall,

7.4.1 By November 18, 1994, submit a complete application for Authority to Construct for all modifications to each unit.

7.4.2 By March 18, 1995, demonstrate full compliance.

7.5 Section 7.5 applies to any unit that will achieve full compliance with the emission limits in Section 5.0 through the exclusive use of an increased rate of water or steam injection and that requires modification of the turbine water/steam injection system or modification to the water storage and treatment system. The owner/operator of each applicable unit shall,

7.5.1 By August 18, 1995, submit a complete application for Authority to Construct for all modifications to each unit.

7.5.2 By August 18, 1996, demonstrate full compliance.