SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY UNIFIED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DISTRICT



RULE 4653 ADHESIVES (Adopted March 17, 1994; Amended April 13, 1995; Amended March 19, 1998)

1.0 Purpose
The purpose of this rule is to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds from the application of adhesive products.

2.0 Applicability
This rule is applicable to any person who supplies, sells, offers for sale, or applies any adhesive product within the District.

3.0 Definitions
The following definitions apply for the purpose of this rule.

3.1 ABS Welding Adhesive: any adhesive that is intended by the manufacturer to weld acrylonitrile styrene (ABS) plastic. ABS is made by reacting monomers of acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene and is normally identified with ABS marking.

3.2 Aerosol Spray Adhesive: a mixture of rubber, resin, liquids and gaseous solvents and propellants packaged in a disposable container for hand-held application.

3.3 Adhesive: any material used to bond two surfaces together.

3.4 Adhesive primers: any material applied to a substrate prior to the application of an adhesive to provide a bonding surface.

3.5 Adhesive Products: adhesives and adhesive primers.

3.6 Architectural: pertaining to stationary structures including buildings, houses, and mobile homes, and their appurtenances.

3.7 Ceramic Tile Installation Adhesive: any adhesive that is intended by the manufacturer to be used for installation of ceramic tiles.

3.8 Composite Vapor Pressure: the sum of the partial pressure of the compounds defined as VOC. VOC composite partial pressure is calculated as follows:


Where:
Wi = Weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams
Ww = Weight of water, in grams
We = Weight of the "e"th exempt compound, in grams
MWe = Molecular weight of the "e"th exempt VOC compound, in grams per gram-mole
MWi = Molecular weight of the "i"th VOC compound, in grams per gram-mole
MWw = Molecular weight of water, in grams per gram-mole
PPc = VOC composite vapor pressure at 68o F, in mm Hg

VPi = Vapor pressure of the "i"th VOC compound at 68o F, in mm Hg
3.9 Contact Adhesive: any adhesive that is intended by the manufacturer to adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact. This adhesive is applied to both adherends and allowed to become dry, which develops a bond when the adherends are brought together without sustained pressure.

3.10 Contact Adhesive - Specialty: contact adhesives that are intended by the manufacturer to be used for the bonding of nonporous substrates to each other, the bonding of decorative laminate in postforming applications, the bonding of decorative laminate to metal, melamine-covered board, or curved surfaces, or the bonding of any substrate to metal, rubber, rigid plastic, or wood veneer not exceeding 1/16" in thickness. For the purpose of this rule, contact adhesives that are labeled exclusively for either the bonding of single-ply roof material or immersible products shall also be considered specialty contact adhesives.

3.11 Control System: a control device and a collection system.

3.12 CPVC Welding Adhesive: any adhesive intended by the manufacturer for the welding of CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) plastic. CPVC is a polymer of the monomer that contains 67 percent chlorine and is normally identified with a CPVC marking.

3.13 Exempt Compounds: compounds identified as exempt under the definition of VOCs, in Rule 1020 (Definitions).

3.14 Flexible Vinyl: a nonrigid polyvinyl chloride plastic with at least five percent, by weight of plasticizer content. A plasticizer is a material, such as a high boiling point organic solvent, that is incorporated into an adhesive to increase its flexibility, workability, or distensibility, and may be determined using the latest version of ASTM Method E260 or from product formulation data.

3.15 Floor Covering Installation: installation of wood flooring, carpet, floor tile, or artificial grass. Floor covering installation does not include ceramic tile installation or perimeter bonded sheet flooring installation.

3.16 Grams of VOC per Liter of Adhesive Product, Excluding Water and Exempt Compounds: the weight of VOC per combined volume of VOC and coating solids, calculated using the following equation:

Where:
Ws = weight of volatile compounds in grams
Ww = weight of water in grams
Wec = weight of exempt compounds in grams
Vm = volume of material in liters
Vw = volume of water in liters
Vec = volume of exempt compounds in liters

3.17 Grams of VOC per Liter of Material: the weight of VOC per volume of material, calculated using the following equation:

Grams of VOC per Liter of Material = (Ws - Ww - Wec) / Vm

Where:
Ws = weight of all volatile compounds in grams
Ww = weight of water in grams
Wec = weight of exempt compounds in grams
Vm = volume of the material in liters

3.18 High-Volume, Low-Pressure (HVLP) Spray: equipment used to apply coatings by means of a spray gun which is designed and intended to be operated and which is operated between 0.1 and 10 psig of air atomizing pressure, measured dynamically at the center of the air cap and at the air horns.

3.19 Low-Solids Adhesive Product: any adhesive or adhesive primer that contains less than 120 grams of solids per liter of material.

3.20 Multipurpose Construction: the installation or repair of construction materials including, but not limited to, drywall, subfloor, panelling, baseboards, fiberglass, ceiling tiles, and ceiling panels.

3.21 Percent VOC by Weight: is the ratio of the weight of the VOC to the weight of the material, expressed as a percentage.

3.22 Perimeter Bonded Sheet Flooring Installation: the installation of sheet flooring with vinyl backing onto a nonporous substrate using an adhesive designed to be applied only to a strip of up to four inches wide around the perimeter of the sheet flooring

3.23 Plastic Cement Welding Adhesive: adhesives composed of resins and solvents that are used to dissolve plastic surfaces to form a bond between mating surfaces.

3.24 Plastic Cement Welding Primer: any primer intended by the manufacturer to prepare plastic substrates prior to welding.

3.25 Plastic Foam: a foam constructed of plastic material.

3.26 Porous Materials: materials with surfaces permeable to liquids. Examples of porous materials include paper, and cardboard.

3.27 PVC Welding Adhesive: any adhesive intended by the manufacturer to weld polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic. PVC plastic is a polymer of the chlorinated vinyl monomer that contains 57 percent chlorine and which is normally identified with a PVC marking.

3.28 Rubber: any natural or manmade rubber substrate, including but not limited to styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), polychloroprene (neoprene), butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM).

3.29 Rubber Vulcanization Adhesive/Primer: any adhesive product designed to bond uncured rubber to metal, rubber, or polyester or nylon fabrics during the vulcanization process.

3.30 Single-ply Roof Material Installation: the use of adhesive products to apply one layer of roofing membrane.

3.31 Solvent: fluids used as diluents, thinners, dissolvers, viscosity reducers, or cleaning agents.

3.32 Solvent Welding: is the softening of the surfaces of two substrates by wetting them with solvents and/or adhesives, and joining them together with a chemical and/or physical reaction(s) to form a fused union.

3.33 Staple and Nail Manufacturing Adhesive: any adhesive that is intended by the manufacturer to bond industrial staples into a clip or to be applied to industrial nails to produce collated nails.

3.34 Structural Glazing: the use of adhesives to bond glass, ceramic, metal, stone, or composite panels to the exterior of a building.

3.35 Surface Preparation Solvent: any VOC containing material used to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from a substrate prior to the application of an adhesive product.

3.36 Tire Repair: the repair of a hole, tear, fissure, or blemish in a tire casing by grinding or gouging, applying adhesive or sealant product and filling the hole or crevice with rubber.

3.37 Volatile Organic Compound (VOC): defined in Rule 1020 (Definitions).

3.38 Waste Materials: materials include but are not limited to paper or cloth used for cleaning operations, waste adhesives, or spent cleaning materials.

3.39 Waterproof Resorcinol Glue: a two-part, resorcinol-resin-based adhesive designed for applications where the bond line must be resistant to conditions of continuous immersion in fresh or salt water.


4.0 Exemptions

4.1 The provisions of this rule shall not apply to:

4.1.1 The use of 20 gallons or less of adhesives products with a VOC content of 20 grams or more per liter in a calendar year at any one stationary source. Commercial and industrial operations exempted by this section shall maintain monthly records documenting the type and quantity of adhesive products used and provide the records to the District upon request.

4.1.2 The use of adhesive products containing less than 20 grams VOC per liter.

4.1.3 The testing and evaluation of adhesives in research laboratories, analytical laboratories, or quality assurance laboratories.

4.1.4 The use of adhesives in tire repair.

4.1.5 The use of adhesives that are sold or supplied with 8 fluid oz. or less of adhesive in nonreusable containers.

4.1.6 The use of aerosol spray adhesive products.

4.1.7 Household adhesive products subject to Article 2, Consumer Products, Sections 94507 - 94517, Title 17, California Code of Regulations.

4.1.8 Adhesive products which are subject to the VOC limit requirements of Rule 4605 (Aerospace Assembly and Component Coating Operations) and Rule 4607 (Graphic Arts).

4.1.9 Contact adhesives that are subject to the Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations in 16 CFR, Part 1302, that have a flash point greater than 20º F as determined pursuant to those regulations, and that are sold in packages that contain 128 fluid ounces or less.

4.2 The prohibition of sale in Section 5.3 shall not apply to the following:

4.2.1 Adhesive products shipped, supplied, or sold exclusively to persons outside the District for use outside the District.

4.2.2 Adhesive products sold to any person who complies with the requirements of Section 5.1.4.

5.0 Requirements

5.1 Process and Control Requirements

5.1.1 The VOC content of adhesive products used for specific applications shall not exceed the following limits, expressed as grams of VOC per liter of adhesive product, excluding water and exempt compounds, or grams of VOC per liter of material for low-solids adhesive products, as applied:

5.1.2 Effective March 17, 1995, the VOC content of adhesive products, except as provided in Section 5.1.1, shall not exceed the following limits, expressed as grams of VOC per liter of adhesive product, excluding water and exempt compounds, or grams of VOC per liter of material for low-solids adhesive products, as applied:

The higher of the two limits from the table above applies to the bonding of two dissimilar substrates.

5.1.3 Spray application of adhesives products shall only be performed using airless; air-assisted airless; High-Volume, Low Pressure; disposable aerosol containers; or electrostatic spray equipment. Air-atomized spray may only be used for the application of contact adhesives or specialty contact adhesives.

5.1.4 Control Requirements: The requirements of Sections 5.1.1, 5.1.2, and 5.1.3 shall not apply to any person who installs and operates air pollution control equipment with an overall capture and control efficiency of at least 85 percent on a mass basis as determined in accordance with Section 6.3. The control equipment shall be under District permit. In no case shall compliance through the use of this section result in VOC emissions in excess of the VOC emissions which would result from compliance with Sections 5.1.1, 5.1.2, and 5.1.3. The minimum required control efficiency of an emission control system at which an equivalent or greater level of VOC reduction will be achieved shall be calculated by using the following equation:

Where:
CE = Control Efficiency, percent
VOCLWc = VOC Limit, less water and less exempt compounds
VOCLWn,Max = Maximum VOC content of noncompliant adhesive product used in conjunction with a control device, less water and less exempt compounds
Dn,Max = Density of solvent, reducer, or thinner contained in the noncompliant adhesive product, containing the maximum VOC content
Dc = Density of corresponding solvent, reducer, or thinner used in the compliant adhesive products

5.2 Evaporative Loss Minimization

5.2.1 Solvents used for surface preparation in adhesive operations shall not contain more than 250 grams of VOC per liter of material.

5.2.2 Except in enclosed equipment cleaners, no person shall use materials containing VOC for cleanup in adhesive operations unless the composite vapor pressure of the solvent is less than 45 mm of Hg at 68º F (20º C).

5.2.3 Use closed containers to store all adhesive products, solvents, or other VOC containing materials except when accessed for use.

5.2.4 Use self-closing containers for the disposal of all adhesive materials, solvents, or any unused VOC containing materials in such a manner as to effectively control VOC emissions.

5.3 Prohibition of Sale
Except as provided in Section 4.2, no person shall supply, sell, or offer for sale any adhesive product that does not meet the limits as specified in Section 5.1.1, effective January 1, 1996.


6.0 Administrative Requirements

6.1 Recordkeeping

6.1.1 Any person subject to Sections 5.1 or 5.2 shall maintain the following records:

6.1.1.1 Daily records of the type and quantity of all adhesives, primers, and solvents used in each operation.

6.1.1.2 Records of the VOC content, in grams VOC per liter, of all adhesive materials used or stored at the facility.

6.1.1.3 Records of the VOC content or composite vapor pressure of all solvents used and stored at the facility.

6.1.1.4 Recordkeeping for Emission Control Systems: Any person using an emission control system as a means of complying with the provisions in Section 5.1.4 shall maintain daily records of key system operating parameters which will demonstrate continuous operation and compliance of the emission control system during periods of emission producing activities. Key system operating parameters are those necessary to ensure compliance with VOC limits. The parameters may include, but are not limited to, temperatures, pressures, and flow rates.

6.1.2 Any person who claims exemption from the prohibition of sale in Section 5.3 shall maintain records for all adhesive products sold that do not meet the limits as specified in Section 5.1.1 which include the following:

6.1.2.1 Records of the type, quantity, and VOC content, in grams per liter, of the adhesive products sold.

6.1.2.2 Records of the name, address, and telephone number of the persons to whom the adhesive products are sold.

6.1.3 Records required by this section shall be retained at the facility for a period of at least 24 months and be made available to the District upon request.

6.2 Labeling Requirements

6.2.1 VOC Content: Each container of adhesive product subject to this rule and manufactured after January 1, 1996, shall display the maximum VOC content of the adhesive product as applied. VOC content shall be displayed as grams of VOC per liter of adhesive product, excluding water and exempt compounds, or grams of VOC per liter of material for low-solids adhesive products. Each container of solvent subject to this rule shall display the maximum VOC content (in grams of VOC per liter of material) and composite vapor pressure of the solvent as supplied.

6.2.2 Thinning Recommendations: Each container of adhesive product subject to this rule and manufactured after January 1, 1996, shall display a statement of the manufacturer's recommendations regarding thinning, reducing, or mixing of the adhesive product with any other VOC containing material. Mixing recommendations shall specify a ratio which results in a compliant, as applied, adhesive product.

6.3 Test Methods
The analysis of solvents, adhesive products, and control efficiency shall be determined by the following methods:

6.3.1 The control efficiency of add-on control devices is to be determined using EPA Method 25A (Determination of Total Gaseous Organic Concentration using a Flame Ionization Analyzer) or EPA Method 25 (Determination of Total Gaseous Non Methane Organic Emissions as Carbon).

6.3.2 The VOC and solids content of adhesive products and solvents shall be determined using EPA Method 24 or other test method approved by ARB and EPA.

6.3.3 The capture efficiency for add-on control devices shall be determined according to EPA's technical document, "Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency", January 9, 1995.

6.3.4 The composite vapor pressure of organic compounds in solvents shall be determined by quantifying the amount of each compound in the blend using gas chromatographic analysis (the latest version of ASTM E260) for organics and the latest version of ASTM D3792 for water content, if applicable, or by using product formulation data, and by summing the partial pressures of each compound at 68º F (20º C). For the purpose of this calculation, Raoult's Law applies to the blend. The vapor pressure of each single component compound may be determined using the latest version of ASTM D2879 or may be obtained from the most current edition of a published source, including, but not limited to:

6.3.4.1 "The Vapor Pressure of Pure Substances", Boublik, Fried, and Hala; Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
6.3.4.2 "Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook", McGraw-Hill Book Company.
6.3.4.3 "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics", Chemical Rubber Publishing Company.
6.3.4.4 "Lange's Handbook of Chemistry", John A. Dean, editor; McGraw-Hill Book Company.