YOLO-SOLANO AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT

RULE 2.29 - GRAPHIC ARTS PRINTING OPERATIONS
(Revised August 13, 1997)

INDEX


100 GENERAL

101 PURPOSE

110 EXEMPTION, SMALL USER

111 EXEMPTION, LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL OPERATIONS

200 DEFINITIONS

201 COATING

202 CONTROL DEVICE

203 CONVERTING OPERATION

204 DOCTOR BLADE

205 DRYING OVEN

206 EXTREME PERFORMANCE INK/COATING

207 FLEXIBLE PACKAGING INDUSTRY

208 FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING

209 FOUNTAIN SOLUTION

210 FUGITIVE EMISSIONS

211 GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS

212 GRAVURE PRINTING

213 INTAGLIO PRINTING

214 LAMINATING OPERATIONS

215 LETTERPRESS PRINTING

216 LINE

217 LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING

218 MAKEUP SOLVENT

219 METALLIC INK

220 NONHEATSET INK

221 NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE

222 OFFSET PRINTING

223 PACKAGING GRAVURE PRINTING

224 POROUS SUBSTRATE

225 PRODUCTION UNIT

226 PUBLICATION GRAVURE PRINTING

227 SCREEN PRINTING

228 SIGN INK/COATING

229 SOLVENT

230 SPECIALTY GRAVURE PRINTING

231 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC)

232 WEB

233 WEB-FEED

234 WEB SPLICING ADHESIVE

300 STANDARDS

301 PUBLICATION GRAVURE REQUIREMENTS

302 FLEXOGRAPHIC, GRAVURE, LETTERPRESS, AND LITHOGRAPHIC REQUIREMENTS

303 SCREEN PRINTING REQUIREMENTS

304 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

305 SOLVENT EVAPORATIVE LOSS MINIMIZATION


400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS

401 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN

402 COMPLIANCE STATEMENT REQUIREMENT


500 MONITORING AND RECORDS

501 RECORDS

502 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM RECORDS

503 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MONITORING

504 TEST METHODS





100 GENERAL

101 PURPOSE: To limit the emission of volatile organic compounds from graphic arts operations.

110 EXEMPTION - SMALL USER:

110.1 Until January 1, 1995, the requirements of this Rule shall not apply to any facility which conducts graphic arts operations which emits less than 30 pounds of volatile organic compounds per operating day (calculation of emissions shall not include surface preparation or cleanup solvent).
110.2 Effective January 1, 1995, the requirements of this Rule shall not apply to any facility that emits less than 400 pounds of volatile organic compounds in any month from graphic arts operations, including surface preparation and cleanup solvents. For the purpose of calculating exemption applicability, emissions of volatile organic compounds from the use of nonheatset lithographic ink shall be determined by the test methods specified in Sections 504.1 or 504.2 of this Rule.
110.3 Any person claiming an exemption under this Section shall have information available, such as purchase orders or hazardous waste manifests, that would allow the Air Pollution Control Officer to verify facility usage.

111 EXEMPTION - LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL OPERATIONS: The requirements of this Rule, with the exception of Section 501 of this Rule, shall not apply to graphic arts operations used exclusively for research, laboratory analysis or determination of product quality and commercial acceptance, such as proof presses or other proofing systems, provided that total VOC emissions from all such equipment does not exceed 300 pounds per calendar month per facility.


200 DEFINITIONS

201 COATING: The application of a uniform layer of material across the entire width of a substrate. Those machines which have both coating and printing units are considered to be performing a graphic arts operation.

202 CONTROL DEVICE: Equipment such as an incinerator or adsorber used to prevent air pollutants from reaching the ambient air.

203 CONVERTING OPERATION: Coating, waxing, laminating, extrusion coating and printing, for fabrication of base materials. The base materials are then used to produce wraps, bags, and other preformed packages.

204 DOCTOR BLADE: A steel blade used to scrape excess ink from a printing plate.

205 DRYING OVEN: An oven used to hasten the process of drying printed or coated material.

206 EXTREME PERFORMANCE INK/COATING: An ink or coating used in screen printing on a non-porous substrate that is designed to withstand any of the following:

206.1 More than two years of outdoor exposure; or
206.2 Exposure to industrial-grade chemicals, solvents, acids detergents, oil products, cosmetics, temperatures exceeding 76oC (170oF), vacuum forming, embossing, or molding.

207 FLEXIBLE PACKAGING INDUSTRY: Establishments that convert materials consisting of light gauge papers, plastic films, cellulosic films such as cellophane, thin gauge metal sheets such as aluminum foil or steel foil, and combinations thereof into a variety of product packages.

208 FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING: A printing operation in which words, designs, or pictures are applied to a substrate by means of a roll printing technique in which a raised pattern is applied to an image carrier made of rubber or other elastomeric materials mounted on a steel matting cylinder The image is then printed directly from the raised pattern to the substrate.

209 FOUNTAIN SOLUTION: The solution applied to the image plate to maintain the hydrophilic properties of the nonimage areas and to keep the nonimage area free from ink.

210 FUGITIVE EMISSIONS: Emissions of volatile organic compounds from any portion of the printing, coating, or lamination operation other than the drying oven.

211 GRAPHIC ARTS OPERATIONS: Publication gravure, packaging gravure, web-feed wallpaper screen printing, specialty gravure, flexographic printing operations, lithographic printing operations, letterpress printing operations, or any coating or laminating operation that manufacturers' flexible packaging material for the packaging industry. Coating operations which are performed by a machine having only coating units and no printing units are not graphic arts operations.

212 GRAVURE PRINTING: An intaglio printing operation in which the ink is transferred from minute etched wells which comprise the image on a plate to the substrate which is supported by an impression roller, with excess ink removed from the plate by a doctor blade.

213 INTAGLIO PRINTING: A printing operation done from a plate in which the image is etched or engraved into the surface.

214 LAMINATING OPERATIONS: A process of composing two or more layers of material to form a single multiple-layer sheet by using adhesive as the bonding agent.

215 LETTERPRESS PRINTING: A printing operation in which the image area is raised relative to the nonimage area and the ink is transferred to the paper directly from the image surface.

216 LINE: The minimum equipment which is required for the application and/or curing of inks and/or coatings on a substrate, including the ink and/or coating applicators and heating oven(s) and associated ink and coating mixing equipment.

217 LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING: A printing operation in which the image and nonimage areas exist in the same plane. The nonimage area is treated chemically so that the image areas will be printed onto the substrate.

218 MAKEUP SOLVENT: That solvent which is added to printing inks to reduce viscosity.

219 METALLIC INK: An ink that contains greater than 50 grams of metal per liter (0.4 lb/gal) of ink.

220 NONHEATSET INK: An ink which dries primarily by oxidation and absorption into the substrate without the use of heat from dryers or ovens, used primarily in lithographic and letterpress printing.

221 NONPOROUS SUBSTRATE: Any substrate other than paper or paperboard, including but not limited to foil, polyethylene, polypropylene, cellophane, metallized polyester, nylon and polyethylene terephthalate (mylar), but not including wood, metal, or ceramic materials.

222 OFFSET PRINTING: A lithographic printing operation in which the image area is transferred, or offset, to another surface, and then printed onto the substrate.

223 PACKAGING GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation on paper, paperboard, foil, film or other substrates which are to be used to produce containers or packages.

224 POROUS SUBSTRATE: Paper or paperboard.

225 PRODUCTION UNIT: A ream of paper, consisting of 500 sheets of paper.

226 PUBLICATION GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation on paper which is subsequently formed into books, magazines, catalogs, brochures, directories, newspaper supplements or other publication material.

227 SCREEN PRINTING: A printing operation in which the printing ink passes through a refined form of stencil to a web or fabric. The stencil openings determine the form and dimension of the imprint.

228 SIGN INK/COATING: An ink or coating used in screen printing indoor and outdoor signs (excluding structural components) and murals, including lettering enamels, poster colors, copy blockers, and bulletin enamels.

229 SOLVENT: Organic compounds which are used as diluents, thinners, dissolvers, viscosity reducers, cleaning agents, or for other similar uses.

230 SPECIALTY GRAVURE PRINTING: A gravure printing operation for production of wall and floor covering, decorated household paper products such as towels and tissues, cigarette filter tips, vinyl upholstery, gift wrap, and woodgrains.

231 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC): For a current listing of exempt compounds see Section 214 of District Rule 1.1, General Provisions and Definitions.

232 WEB: A continuous sheet of substrate that is printed on web-feed printing presses.

233 WEB-FEED: An automatic system on a printing press which supplies a web substrate to the printing unit.

234 WEB SPLICING ADHESIVE: An adhesive used to join two continuous rolls of substrate.


300 STANDARDS

301 PUBLICATION GRAVURE REQUIREMENTS: A person shall not operate a publication gravure process unless one of the following conditions is satisfied:

301.1 The process uses ink and coating that contains less than 300 grams of volatile organic compounds per liter of product (2.5 lb/gal), less water and exempt compounds, or
301.2 Emissions of volatile organic compounds from the printing and drying operation are controlled by an emissions control system which has an overall collection and control efficiency of at least 85 percent on a mass basis.

302 FLEXOGRAPHIC, GRAVURE, LETTERPRESS, AND LITHOGRAPHIC REQUIREMENTS: Effective January 1, 1995, except as provided in Section 304 of this Rule, a person shall not operate a flexographic, gravure, letterpress, lithographic, related printing or coating operation unless the product limits shown in Table 1, expressed in grams of volatile organic compounds per liter (lbs/gal) of product as applied, less water and exempt compounds are met.

Table 1

Product

Limits

Grams VOC/Liter of Product

as applied, less water and exempt compounds (lbs/gal)

Ink

300 (2.5)

Coating

300 (2.5)

Adhesive

150 (1.25)

Web Splicing Adhesive

300 (2.5)

Effective January 1, 1995, a person shall not use in any flexographic, gravure, letterpress, lithographic, related printing or coating operation any fountain solution which contains a total VOC in excess of 100 grams per liter (0.83 lbs/gal) of material, as applied.

303 SCREEN PRINTING REQUIREMENTS: Effective January 1, 1995, except as provided in Section 304 of this Rule, a person shall not operate a screen printing operation, unless the product limits as shown in Table 2, expressed in grams of volatile organic compounds per liter (lbs/gal) as applied, less water and exempt compounds are met.

Table 2

Product

Limits

Grams VOC/Liter of Product as applied, less water and exempt compounds (lbs/gal)

Effective January 1, 1995

Ink

400(3.3)

Coating

400(3.3)

Adhesive

150(1.25)

Extreme Performance Ink/Coating

400(3.3)

Metallic Ink

400(3.3)

Sign Ink/Coating

400(3.3)

304 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: The limits in Sections 302 and 303 of this Rule shall not apply when emissions of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere from the printing, coating, or laminating and drying operations are controlled by an emission control device that is approved by the Air Pollution Control Officer and has an overall collection and control efficiency of at least 75 percent on a mass basis.

305 SOLVENT EVAPORATIVE LOSS MINIMIZATION: The following requirements shall apply to any person using solvent for surface preparation and cleanup and to any person using, mixing, storing, or disposing of ink, coating, or adhesive:

305.1 A person shall not use open containers for the storage or disposal of cloth or paper impregnated with organic compounds that is used for surface preparation, cleanup, or ink, coating, or adhesive removal.
305.2 A person shall not store spent or fresh organic compounds to be used for surface preparation, cleanup, or ink, coating, or adhesive removal, in open containers.
305.3 A person shall not leave containers of ink, coating, adhesive, or fountain solution open when not in use.

400 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS

401 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PLAN: Any person using an approved emission control device pursuant to Sections 301.2 or 304 of this Rule as a means with complying with this rule must submit, with the application for Authority to Construct, pursuant to Rule 3.1, GENERAL PERMIT REQUIREMENTS, an Operation and Maintenance Plan for the emission control device to the Air Pollution Control Officer for approval. Plans for emission control devices installed as of May 25, 1994, if not previously submitted, must be submitted by November 25, 1994 and receive approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer. The plan shall specify operation and maintenance procedures which will demonstrate continuous operation of the control device during periods of emission-producing operations. The plan shall also specify which records must be kept to document these operation and maintenance procedures. These records shall comply with the requirements of Sections 501.4 and 501.5 of this Rule. The plan shall be implemented upon approval of the Air Pollution Control Officer.

402 COMPLIANCE STATEMENT REQUIREMENT: The manufacturer or distributor of all inks, coatings, adhesives, fountain solutions, makeup solvents, and surface preparation and cleanup solvents which are sold for use in graphic arts operations within the District shall include on product data sheets a designation of both the as-supplied VOC content, less water, except for fountain solutions, (prior to any recommended dilution) and the as-applied VOC content (based on any recommended dilution) of each material. Fountain solution VOC content shall be expressed in grams per liter of material or pounds per gallon of material. The VOC content shall be expressed in grams per liter or pounds per gallon and may be either by calculation or analysis.

500 MONITORING AND RECORDS

501 RECORDS: Any person subject to the provisions of Sections 111, 301.1, 302, and 303 of this Rule shall:

501.1 Maintain a current list of inks, coatings, adhesives, fountain solutions and makeup solvent in use which states the VOC content of each.
501.2

Record on a monthly basis the type and amount of all using one of the following methods:

  1. Group the quantity of all inks used and used identify the maximum VOC content and use the minimum density of 1.01 kg/l (8.44 lb/gal).
  2. Report process inks and pantone colors separately and use the specific VOC content and density value for each process ink and the highest volatile organic compound and 1.01 kg/l (8.44 lb/gal) for pantone inks.
  3. Report process inks and pantone colors separately using the maximum VOC content and minimum density for both process and pantone inks or use the density of 1.01 kg/l (8.44 lb/gal).
  4. Itemize each ink and pantone color and use the specific VOC content and density value for each.
501.3 Record on a monthly basis the type and amount of each coating, adhesive, fountain solution; and makeup, surface preparation, and cleanup solvent used.
501.4 Retain and have such records available for inspection by the Air Pollution Control Officer for the previous 24 month period.
501.5 Maintain Operation and Maintenance Plan records required by the provisions of Section 401 of this Rule on a daily basis.

502 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM RECORDS: Any person subject to the provisions of Sections 301.2 or 304 of this Rule shall:

502.1 Maintain a current list of inks, coatings, adhesives, fountain solutions, and makeup solvent in use which states the VOC content of each.
502.2 Record on a daily basis the type and amount of all ink, coating adhesive, fountain solution; and makeup, surface preparation, and cleanup solvent used.
502.3 Record on a daily basis all key system operating parameters, such as temperature, flow rates, and pressure, where applicable.
502.4 Retain and have such records available for inspection by the Air Pollution Control Officer for the previous 24 month period.

503 EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEM MONITORING: Any person who uses a emission control system which is subject to the provisions of Sections 301.2 and 304 of this Rule shall install a readily visible temperature gauge which monitors the operating temperature of the emission control system at all times during operation.

504 TEST METHODS:

504.1 Analysis of Samples: Measurement of the volatile content of adhesives, coatings, fountain solutions, makeup solvents, surface preparation and cleanup solvents, and all inks (except as provided for in Section 502.2 of this Rule) shall be made in accordance with EPA Method 24 and 24A.
504.2 Analysis of Samples, Nonheatset Polymerizing Lithographic or Letterpress Inks: Measurement of the volatile content shall be made in accordance with EPA Method 24 and 24A. All components of the sample must be weighed in the proper proportion into the analysis container and mixed together, with the mixture then being allowed to stand for at least one hour, but no more than 24 hours, prior to being oven-dried at 110oC for 1 hour.
504.3 Determination of Exempt Compounds: Compounds considered exempt from the definition of Volatile Organic Compound, as listed in Section 225 of this Rule, shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 4457-85 or ARB Method 432. If any of the perfluorocarbons are being claimed as exempt compounds, the person making the claim must state in advance which compounds are present, and the EPA-approved test method used to make the determination of these compounds.
504.4 Determination of Control Efficiency: Control Efficiency of control equipment shall be determined in accordance with EPA Method 25.
504.5 Determination of Collection System Efficiency: Collection efficiency of the collection system shall be determined by and reported in accordance with 40 CFR 52.741, Appendix B, "VOM Measurement Techniques for Capture Efficiency".
504.6 Determination of Metal Content: The measurement of metal content shall be determined in accordance with South Coast Air Quality Management District's Spectrographic Method 311.