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Comment 5 for Proposed Amendments to the ATCM for Chromium Electroplating and Chromic Acid Anodizing Operations (chromeatcm2023) - 45 Day.

First NameRich
Last NameRoberson
SubjectA Process Comparison: Hexavalent vs. Trivalent Hard Chrome

Hexavalent Cr


Trivalent Cr

Excellent deposit properties

Struggles with many issues

Simple bath chemistry

Very complicated bath formulation

Very good corrosion resistance

Requires a nickel deposit first

Fewer tanks & less floorspace

Much larger plating lines

Reverse etch activation

Needs an alkaline cleaner and acid dip

Broad operating window

Sensitive to operating conditions

Easy to control & maintain

Daily analysis & additions needed

Tolerant to bath impurities

Very sensitive to many impurities

Uses standard lead anodes

Expensive MMO anodes required

Tolerates water additions

Sensitive to water concentration

Bath additions not a problem

Requires ‘Bleed and Feed’

Indefinite bath life

Periodic bath dumps required

Easily Zero Discharged

Waste treatment always needed

Over 100 years of success

New and unproven

Much lower investment

Considerable higher entry cost

Inexpensive to operate

Significantly higher operating costs

Many possible vendors

Tied to a single supplier

Easily made Sustainable

Considerable waste generator

Original File Name
Date and Time Comment Was Submitted 2022-12-06 16:41:34

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