2016 Zero Emission Vehicle Credits

This page last reviewed October 13, 2017

To provide greater transparency to interested stakeholders, Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) requested that production data beginning in model year 2009 and credit balances in 2010 be made publicly available.  This request was incorporated into the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation and is in section 1962.1(l).

Manufacturer Volume Status

The ZEV Regulation requires large volume and intermediate volume vehicle manufacturers to bring to and operate in California a certain percent of ZEVs (such as battery electric and fuel cell vehicles), clean plug-in hybrids, clean hybrids and clean gasoline vehicles with near-zero tail pipe emissions.  The table below lists the 2016 vehicle manufacturers subject to the ZEV requirements.

 

2016 Manufacturer Volume Status

Large Volume

Intermediate Volume

Fiat Chrysler
BMW
Ford
Hyundai
GM
Kia
Honda
Jaguar Land Rover
Nissan
Mazda
Toyota
Mercedes

Subaru Corporation

Volkswagen

 

Manufacturer Requirement

A vehicle manufacturer’s ZEV requirement is based on a percentage of all passenger cars and light-duty trucks from 0 to 8,500 pounds (lbs.), delivered for sale in California.  The table below is the 2016 California vehicle production of large volume and intermediate volume manufacturers.

 

Large and Intermediate Volume Manufacturer
2016 Vehicle Production Delivered for Sale in CA
*

Manufacturer

Passenger and LDT

BMW

86,356

Fiat Chrysler

166,995

Ford

205,649

GM

208,319

Honda

313,136

Hyundai

94,515

Jaguar Land Rover

21,738

KIA

89,703

Mazda

85,624

Mercedes

75,393

Nissan

142,811

Subaru Corporation

56,942

Toyota

385,694

Volkswagen

98,471

TOTAL

2,031,346

 

LDT = light duty truck 0-8500 lbs

* Production Delivered does not include ZEVs.

 

Manufacturer Credit Balances

In complying with the ZEV Regulation, manufacturers operate vehicles in California which generate varying credits based on vehicle type.  There are also other parties generating credits that do not have ZEV requirements.  The table below lists the credit balances as of August 31, 2017 generated since the start of the ZEV Regulation in 1990. The credits are in units of ZEV credits.

 

California Zero Emission Vehicle Credit Balances

Manufacturer

ZEV

1.5x/llx

NEV+

TZEV

AT PZEV

PZEV

BMW

8,768.00

19,753.56

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

BYD Motors Inc.

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Fiat Chrysler

90,722.80

0.00

0.00

0.00

14,560.85

1,539.66

Ford

61,352.45

0.00

13,351.26

58,789.857

7,503.40

8,546.20

GM

29,240.20

0.00

8,558.35

75,735.42

5,218.32

8,167.62

Honda

24,422.82

0.00

11,301.84

3,314.38

7,780.20

61,349.24

Hyundai

2,075.00

0.00

0.00

2,095.06

6,868.71

8,477.09

Jaguar Land Rover

3,921.49

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

2,070.32

KIA

6,835.09

0.00

0.00

0.00

6,804.45

10,721.92

Mazda

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

6,840.00

7,782.46

Mercedes

26,776.79

0.00

1,232.63

1,684.00

99.38

4,620.78

Miles

0.00

0.00

5.14

0.00

0.00

0.00

Mitsubishi

148.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1,468.43

Nissan

50,835.82

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Polaris

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Subaru Corporation

34,376.00

0.00

1,177.11

0.00

977.30

20,745.96

Tesla

29,556.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Toyota

75,544.54

0.00

0.00

1,674.83

204,389.53

0.00

Vantage

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Volkswagen

23,724.86

0.00

0.00

3,695.39

855.54

4,018.81

Volvo

0.00

0.00

0.00

1,073.38

0.00

4,588.26

Zenith

62.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Zipcar

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

612.51

488.09

TOTAL

468,362.86

19,753.56

35,626.33

148,062.32

262,510.19

144,584.84

 


ZEV = Zero Emission Vehicle
NEV = Neighborhood Electric Vehicle
TZEV = Transitional Zero Emission Vehicle
AT PZEV = Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle
PZEV = Partial Zero Emission Vehicle



Manufacturer Transfers

Manufacturers may transfer credits between manufacturers and third parties.  Below are the ZEV credit transfers recorded between September 1, 2016 and August 31, 2017.

 

California ZEV Credit Transfers Recorded
Between September 1, 2016 and August 31, 2017

Transferor

Type of Vehicle

Number of Credits

GM

TZEV

6,000.00

Honda

BEV

2,500.00

Honda

PZEV

12,700.00

Tesla

BEV

51,776.00

 

TOTAL

72,976.00

 

Transferee

Type of Vehicle

Number of Credits

Fiat Chrysler

BEV

13,200.00

GM

BEV

2,500.00

GM

PZEV

12,700.00

Honda

TZEV

6,000.00

Subaru Corporation

BEV

3,376.00

Toyota

BEV

35,200.00

 

TOTAL

72,976.00

 

 

Frequently Asked Questions

How many vehicles have been brought to and operated in California as a result of the ZEV Regulation?
These credit balances reflect ZEV regulation compliance through model year 2016, representing a total of over 5 million vehicles including over 1,300 fuel cell vehicles, 140,000 battery electric and IIxs, 29,700 NEVs, 80,000 clean plug-in hybrids, 750,000 clean hybrids, and over 4 million clean gasoline vehicles. 

 

What do these credit balances mean?
All vehicle manufacturers subject to the ZEV Regulation are in compliance through model year 2016.  Positive credit balances represent a successful over compliance with the ZEV Regulation.  Manufacturers can use these balances to provide flexibility in the timing and production of bringing new clean cars to the market to meet the ZEV requirements in coming years.  

 

How far into the future do these credit balances cover the manufacturers’ ZEV requirement?
Each manufacturer is unique in its strategy of compliance with the ZEV Regulation.  It is not possible to predict how and when these credit balances will be spent over the coming years due to the complexity and flexibility of the regulation.  There are also various mechanisms in the ZEV Regulation which limit how credits are spent.  These balances will be taken into account in future amendments to the regulation. 

 

Why are the credit balances in ZEV credits instead of grams per mile Non-Methane Organic Gases (g/mi NMOG)?
For 2015 reporting year and onward credits are expressed in ZEV credits. The purpose of this change is to simplify credit calculations. 2014 balances were divided by .035 to convert g/mile NMOG credits to ZEV credits.

 

How do you calculate a manufacturer’s requirement?
For understanding the calculations involved in the ZEV Regulation, please see the ZEV Tutorial link below.

 

More Information

 

 

Contact Us

 

For more information please contact the Office of Communications at (916) 322-2990 or (800) 242-4450.

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